Book VII. Last

The Ramayana
From Daśaratha Kośal's king.”
He ceased: and Brahmá's self replied:
“O cast the idle thought aside.
Thou art the Lord Náráyaṇ, thou
The God to whom all creatures bow.
Thou art the saviour God who wore
Of old the semblance of a boar;
Thou he whose discus overthrows
All present, past and future foes;
Thou Brahmá, That whose days extend
Without beginning, growth or end;
The God, who, bears the bow of horn,
Whom four majestic arms adorn;
Thou art the God who rules the sense
And sways with gentle influence;
Thou all-pervading Vishṇu Lord
Who wears the ever-conquering sword;
Thou art the Guide who leads aright,
Thou Krishṇa of unequalled might.
Thy hand, O Lord, the hills and plains,
And earth with all her life sustains;
Thou wilt appear in serpent form
When sinks the earth in fire and storm.
Queen Sítá of the lovely brows
Is Lakshmí thy celestial spouse.
To free the worlds from Rávaṇ thou
Wouldst take the form thou wearest now.
Rejoice: the mighty task is done:
Rejoice, thou great and glorious one.
The tyrant, slain, thy labours end:
Triumphant now to heaven ascend.
High bliss awaits the devotee
Who clings in loving faith to thee,
Who celebrates with solemn praise
Canto CXX. Sítá Restored.
The Lord of ne'er beginning days.
On earth below, in heaven above
Great joy shall crown his faith and love.
And he who loves the tale divine
Which tells each glorious deed of thine
Through life's fair course shall never know
The fierce assault of pain and woe.”1020
Canto CXX. Sítá Restored.
Thus spoke the Self-existent Sire:
Then swiftly from the blazing pyre
The circling flames were backward rolled,
And, raising in his gentle hold
Alive unharmed the Maithil dame,
The Lord of Fire embodied came.
Fair as the morning was her sheen,
And gold and gems adorned the queen.
Her form in crimson robes arrayed,
Her hair was bound in glossy braid.
Her wreath was fresh and sweet of scent,
Undimmed was every ornament.
Then, standing close to Ráma'a side,
The universal witness cried:
“From every blot and blemish free
Thy faithful queen returns to thee.
In word or deed, in look or mind
Her heart from thee has ne'er declined.
1020The Address to Ráma, both text and commentary, will be found literally
translated in the Additional Notes. A paraphrase of a portion is all that I have
attempted here.
The Ramayana
By force the giant bore away
From thy lone cot his helpless prey;
And in his bowers securely kept
She still has longed for thee and wept.
With soft temptation, bribe and threat,
He bade the dame her love forget:
But, nobly faithful to her lord,
Her soul the giant's suit abhorred.
Receive, O King, thy queen again,
Pure, ever pure from spot and stain.”
Still stood the king in thoughtful mood
And tears of joy his eyes bedewed.
Then to the best of Gods the best
Of warrior chiefs his mind expressed:
“'Twas meet that mid the thousands here
The searching fire my queen should clear;
For long within the giant's bower
She dwelt the vassal of his power.
For else had many a slanderous tongue
Reproaches on mine honour flung,
And scorned the king who, love-impelled,
His consort from the proof withheld.
No doubt had I, but surely knew
That Janak's child was pure and true,
That, come what might, in good and ill
Her faithful heart was with me still.
I knew that Rávaṇ could not wrong
My queen whom virtue made so strong.
I knew his heart would sink and fail,
Nor dare her honour to assail,
As Ocean, when he raves and roars,
Fears to o'erleap his bounding shores.
Canto CXXI. Dasaratha.
Now to the worlds her truth is shown,
And Sítá is again mine own.
Thus proved before unnumbered eyes,
On her pure fame no shadow lies.
As heroes to their glory cleave,
Mine own dear spouse I ne'er will leave.”
He ceased: and clasped in fond embrace
On his dear breast she hid her face.
Canto CXXI. Dasaratha.
To him Maheśvar thus replied:
“O strong-armed hero, lotus-eyed,
Thou, best of those who love the right,
Hast nobly fought the wondrous fight.
Dispelled by thee the doom that spread
Through trembling earth and heaven is fled.
The worlds exult in light and bliss,
And praise thy name, O chief, for this.
Now peace to Bharat's heart restore,
And bid Kausalyá weep no more.
Thy face let Queen Kaikeyí see,
Let fond Sumitrá gaze on thee.
The longing of thy friends relieve,
The kingdom of thy sires receive.
Let sons of gentle Sítá born
Ikshváku's ancient line adorn.
Then from all care and foemen freed
Perform the offering of the steed.
In pious gifts thy wealth expend,
Then to the home of Gods ascend,
The Ramayana
Thy sire, this glorious king, behold,
Among the blest in heaven enrolled.
He comes from where the Immortals dwell:
Salute him, for he loves thee well.”
His mandate Raghu's sons obeyed,
And to their sire obeisance made,
Where high he stood above the car
In wondrous light that shone afar,
His limbs in radiant garments dressed
Whereon no spot of dust might rest.
When on the son he loved so well
The eyes of Daśaratha fell,
He strained the hero to his breast
And thus with gentle words addressed:
“No joy to me is heavenly bliss,
For there these eyes my Ráma miss.
Enrolled on high with saint and sage,
Thy woes, dear son, my thoughts engage.
Kaikeyí's guile I ne'er forget:
Her cruel words will haunt me yet,
Which sent thee forth, my son, to roam
The forest far from me and home.
Now when I look on each dear face,
And hold you both in fond embrace,
My heart is full of joy to see
The sons I love from danger free.
Now know I what the Gods designed,
And how in Ráma's form enshrined
The might of Purushottam lay,
The tyrant of the worlds to slay.
Ah, how Kausalyá will rejoice
To hear again her darling's voice,
And, all thy weary wanderings o'er,
Canto CXXI. Dasaratha.
To gaze upon thy face once more.
Ah blest, for ever blest are they
Whose eyes shall see the glorious day
Of thy return in joy at last,
Thy term of toil and exile past.
Ayodhyá's lord, begin thy reign,
And day by day new glory gain.”
He ceased: and Ráma thus replied:
“Be not this grace, O sire, denied.
Those hasty words, that curse revoke
Which from thy lips in anger broke:
“Kaikeyí, be no longer mine:
I cast thee off, both thee and thine.”
O father, let no sorrow fall
On her or hers: thy curse recall.”
“Yea, she shall live, if so thou wilt,”
The sire replied, “absolved from guilt.”
Round Lakshmaṇ then his arms he threw,
And moved by love began anew:
“Great store of merit shall be thine,
And brightly shall thy glory shine;
Secure on earth thy brother's grace.
And high in heaven shall be thy place.
Thy glorious king obey and fear:
To him the triple world is dear.
God, saint, and sage, by Indra led,
To Ráma bow the reverent head,
Nor from the Lord, the lofty-souled,
Their worship or their praise withhold.
Heart of the Gods, supreme is he,
The One who ne'er shall cease to be.”
The Ramayana
On Sítá then he looked and smiled;
“List to my words” he said, “dear child,
Let not thy gentle breast retain
One lingering trace of wrath or pain.
When by the fire thy truth be proved,
By love for thee his will was moved.
The furious flame thy faith confessed
Which shrank not from the awful test:
And thou, in every heart enshrined,
Shalt live the best of womankind.”
He ceased: he bade the three adieu,
And home to heaven exulting flew.
Canto CXXII. Indra's Boon.
Then Indra, he whose fiery stroke
Slew furious Páka, turned and spoke:
“A glorious day, O chief, is this,
Rich with the fruit of lasting bliss.
Well pleased are we: we love thee well
Now speak, thy secret wishes tell.”
Canto CXXII. Indra's Boon.
Thus spake the sovereign of the sky,
And this was Ráma's glad reply:
“If I have won your grace, incline
To grant this one request of mine.
Restore, O King: the Vánar dead
Whose blood for me was nobly shed.
To life and strength my friends recall,
And bring them back from Yáma's hall.
When, fresh in might the warriors rise,
Prepare a feast to glad their eyes.
Let fruits of every season glow,
And streams of purest water flow.”
Thus Raghu's son, great-hearted, prayed,
And Indra thus his answer made:
“High is the boon thou seekest: none
Should win this grace but Raghu's son.
Yet, faithful to the word I spake,
I grant the prayer for thy dear sake.
The Vánars whom the giants slew
Their life and vigour shall renew.
Their strength repaired, their gashes healed
Whose torrents dyed the battle field,
The warrior hosts from death shall rise
Like sleepers when their slumber flies.”
Restored from Yáma's dark domain
The Vánar legions filled the plain,
And, round the royal chief arrayed,
With wondering hearts obeisance paid.
Each God the son of Raghu praised,
And cried as loud his voice he raised:
“Turn, King, to fair Ayodhyá speed,
And leave thy friends of Vánar breed.
The Ramayana
Thy true devoted consort cheer
After long days of woe and fear.
Bharat, thy loyal brother, see,
A hermit now for love of thee.
The tears of Queen Kauśalyá dry,
And light with joy each stepdame's eye;
Then consecrated king of men
Make glad each faithful citizen.”
They ceased: and borne on radiant cars
Sought their bright home amid the stars.
Canto CXXIII. The Magic Car.
Then slept the tamer of his foes
And spent the night in calm repose.
Vibhishaṇ came when morning broke,
And hailed the royal chief, and spoke:
“Here wait thee precious oil and scents,
And rich attire and ornaments.
The brimming urns are newly filled,
And women in their duty skilled,
With lotus-eyes, thy call attend,
Assistance at thy bath to lend.”
“Let others,” Ráma cried, “desire
These precious scents, this rich attire,
I heed not such delights as these,
For faithful Bharat, ill at ease,
Watching for me is keeping now
Far far away his rigorous vow.
By Bharat's side I long to stand,
Canto CXXIII. The Magic Car.
I long to see my fatherland.
Far is Ayodhyá: long, alas,
The dreary road and hard to pass.”
“One day,” Vibhishaṇ cried, “one day
Shall bear thee o'er that length of way.
Is not the wondrous chariot mine,
Named Pushpak, wrought by hands divine.
The prize which Rávaṇ seized of old
Victorious o'er the God of Gold?
This chariot, kept with utmost care,
Will waft thee through the fields of air,
And thou shalt light unwearied down
In fair Ayodhyá's royal town.
But yet if aught that I have done
Has pleased thee well, O Raghu's son;
If still thou carest for thy friend,
Some little time in Lanká spend;
There after toil of battle rest
Within my halls an honoured guest.”
Again the son of Raghu spake:
“Thy life was perilled for my sake.
Thy counsel gave me priceless aid:
All honours have been richly paid.
Scarce can my love refuse, O best
Of giant kind, thy last request.
But still I yearn once more to see
My home and all most dear to me;
Nor can I brook one hour's delay:
Forgive me, speed me on my way.”
He ceased: the magic car was brought.
Of yore by Viśvakarmá wrought.
In sunlike sheen it flashed and blazed;
And Raghu's sons in wonder gazed.
The Ramayana
Canto CXXIV. The Departure.
The giant lord the chariot viewed,
And humbly thus his speech renewed:
“Behold, O King, the car prepared:
Now be thy further will declared.”
He ceased: and Ráma spake once more:
“These hosts who thronged to Lanká's shore
Their faith and might have nobly shown,
And set thee on the giants' throne.
Let pearls and gems and gold repay
The feats of many a desperate day,
That all may go triumphant hence
Proud of their noble recompense.”
Vibhishaṇ, ready at his call,
With gold and gems enriched them all.
Then Ráma clomb the glorious car
That shone like day's resplendent star.
There in his lap he held his dame
Vailing her eyes in modest shame.
Beside him Lakshmaṇ took his stand,
Whose mighty bow still armed his hand,
“O King Vibhishaṇ,” Ráma cried,
“O Vánar chiefs, so long allied,
My comrades till the foemen fell,
List, for I speak a long farewell.
The task, in doubt and fear begun,
With your good aid is nobly done.
Leave Lanká's shore, your steps retrace,
Brave warriors of the Vánar race.
Thou, King Sugríva, true, through all,
To friendship's bond and duty's call,
Seek far Kishkindhá with thy train
And o'er thy realm in glory reign.
Canto CXXIV. The Departure.
Farewell, Vibhishaṇ, Lanká's throne
Won by our arms is now thine own,
Thou, mighty lord, hast nought to dread
From heavenly Gods by Indra led.
My last farewell, 0 King, receive,
For Lanká's isle this hour I leave.”
Loud rose their cry in answer: “We,
O Raghu's son, would go with thee.
With thee delighted would we stray
Where sweet Ayodhyá's groves are gay,
Then in the joyous synod view
King-making balm thy brows bedew;
Our homage to Kauśalyá pay,
And hasten on our homeward way.”
Their prayer the son of Raghu heard,
And spoke, his heart with rapture stirred:
“Sugríva, O my faithful friend,
Vibhishaṇ and ye chiefs, ascend.
A joy beyond all joys the best
Will fill my overflowing breast,
If girt by you, O noble band,
I seek again my native land.”
With Vánar lords in danger tried
Sugríva sprang to Ráma's side,
And girt by chiefs of giant kind
Vibhíshan's step was close behind.
Swift through the air, as Ráma chose,
The wondrous car from earth arose.
And decked with swans and silver wings
Bore through the clouds its freight of kings.
The Ramayana
Canto CXXV. The Return.
Then Ráma, speeding through the skies,
Bent on the earth his eager eyes:
“Look, Sítá, see, divinely planned
And built by Viśvakarmá's hand,
Lanká the lovely city rest
Enthroned on Mount Trikúṭa's crest
Behold those fields, ensanguined yet,
Where Vánar hosts and giants met.
There, vainly screened by charm and spell,
The robber Rávan fought and fell.
There knelt Mandodarí1021and shed
Her tears in floods for Rávan dead.
And every dame who loved him sent
From her sad heart her wild lament.
There gleams the margin of the deep,
Where, worn with toil, we sank to sleep.
Look, love, the unconquered sea behold,
King Varuṇ's home ordained of old,
Whose boundless waters roar and swell
Rich with their store of pearl and shell.
O see, the morning sun is bright
On fair Hiraṇyanábha's1022height,
Who rose from Ocean's sheltering breast
That Hanumán might stay and rest.
There stretches, famed for evermore,
The wondrous bridge from shore to shore.
The worlds, to life's remotest day,
Due reverence to the work shall pay,
Which holier for the lapse of time
1021Rávaṇ's queen.
1022Or Maináka.
Canto CXXV. The Return.
Shall give release from sin and crime.
Now thither bend, dear love, thine eyes
Where green with groves Kishkindhá lies,
The seat of King Sugríva's reign,
Where Báli by this hand was slain.1023
There Ríshyamúka's hill behold
Bright gleaming with embedded gold.
There too my wandering foot I set,
There King Sugríva first I met.
And, where yon trees their branches wave,
My promise of assistance gave.
There, flushed with lilies, Pampá shines
With banks which greenest foliage lines,
Where melancholy steps I bent
And mourned thee with a mad lament.
There fierce Kabandha, spreading wide
His giant arms, in battle died.
Turn, Sítá, turn thine eyes and see
In Janasthán that glorious tree:
There Rávaṇ, lord of giants slew
Our friend Jaṭáyus brave and true,
Thy champion in the hopeless strife,
Who gave for thee his noble life.
Now mark that glade amid the trees
Where once we lived as devotees.
See, see our leafy cot between
Those waving boughs of densest green,
Where Rávaṇ seized his prize and stole
My love the darling of my soul.
O, look again: beneath thee gleams
1023Here, in the North-west recension, Sítá expresses a wish that Tárá and the
wives of the Vánar chiefs should be invited to accompany her to Ayodhyá.
The car decends, and the Vánar matrons are added to the party. The Bengal
recension ignores this palpable interruption.
The Ramayana
Godávarí the best of streams,
Whose lucid waters sweetly glide
By lilies that adorn her side.
There dwelt Agastya, holy sage,
In plantain-sheltered hermitage.
See Śarabhanga's humble shed
Which sovereign Indra visited.
See where the gentle hermits dwell
Neath Atri's rule who loved us well;
Where once thine eyes were blest to see
His sainted dame who talked with thee.
Now rest thine eyes with new delight
On Chitrakúṭa's woody height,
See Jumna flashing in the sun
Through groves of brilliant foliage run.
Screened by the shade of spreading boughs.
There Bharadvája keeps his vows,
There Gangá, river of the skies,
Rolls the sweet wave that purifies,
There Śringavera's towers ascend
Where Guha reigns, mine ancient friend.
I see, I see thy glittering spires,
Ayodhyá, city of my sires.
Bow down, bow down thy head, my sweet,
Our home, our long-lost home to greet.”
Canto CXXVI. Bharat Consoled.
Canto CXXVI. Bharat Consoled.
But Ráma bade the chariot stay,
And halting in his airy way,
In Bharadvája's holy shade
His homage to the hermit paid.
“O saint,” he cried, “I yearn to know
My dear Ayodhyá's weal and woe.
O tell me that the people thrive,
And that the queens are yet alive.”
Joy gleamed in Bhardvája's eye,
Who gently smiled and made reply:
“Thy brother, studious of thy will,
Is faithful and obedient still.
In tangled twine he coils his hair:
Thy safe return is all his care.
Before thy shoes he humbly bends,
And to thy house and realm attends.
When first these dreary years began,
When first I saw the banished man,
With Sítá, in his hermit coat,
At this sad heart compassion smote.
My breast with tender pity swelled:
I saw thee from thy home expelled,
Reft of all princely state, forlorn,
A hapless wanderer travel-worn,
Firm in thy purpose to fulfil
Thy duty and thy father's will.
But boundless is my rapture now:
Triumphant, girt with friends, art thou.
Where'er thy wandering steps have been,
Thy joy and woe mine eyes have seen.
Thy glorious deeds to me art known,
The Bráhmans saved, the foes o'erthrown.
Such power have countless seasons spent
The Ramayana
In penance and devotion lent.
Thy virtues, best of chiefs, I know,
And now a boon would fain bestow.
This hospitable gift1024receive:
Then with the dawn my dwelling leave.”
The bended head of Ráma showed
His reverence for the grace bestowed;
Then for each brave companion's sake
He sought a further boon and spake:
“O let that mighty power of thine
The road to fair Ayodhyá line
With trees where fruit of every hue
The Vánars' eye and taste may woo,
And flowers of every season, sweet
With stores of honeyed juice, may meet.”
The hero ceased: the hermit bent
His reverend head in glad assent;
And swift, as Bharadvája willed,
The prayer of Ráma was fulfilled.
For many a league the lengthening road
Trees thick with fruit and blossom showed
With luscious beauty to entice
The taste like trees of Paradise.
The Vánars passed beneath the shade
Of that delightful colonnade,
Still tasting with unbounded glee
The treasures of each wondrous tree.
1024The arghya, a respectful offering to Gods and venerable men consisting of
rice, dúivá grass, flowers etc., with water.
Canto CXXVII. Ráma's Message.
Canto CXXVII. Ráma's Message.
But Ráma, when he first looked down
And saw afar Ayodhyá's town,
Had called Hanumán to his side,
The chief on whom his heart relied,
And said: “Brave Vánar, good at need,
Haste onward, to Ayodhyá speed,
And learn, I pray, if all be well
With those who in the palace dwell.
But as thou speedest on thy way
Awhile at Śringavera stay.
Tell Guha the Nishádas' lord,
That victor, with my queen restored,
In health and strength with many a friend
Homeward again my steps I bend.
Thence by the road that he will show
On to Ayodhyá swiftly go.
There with my love my brother greet,
And all our wondrous tale repeat.
Say that victorious in the strife
I come with Lakshmaṇ and my wife,
Then mark with keenest eye each trace
Of joy or grief on Bharat's face.
Be all his gestures closely viewed,
Each change of look and attitude.
Where breathes the man who will not cling
To all that glorifies a king?
Where beats the heart that can resign
An ancient kingdom, nor repine
To lose a land renowned for breeds
Of elephants and warrior steeds?
If, won by custom day by day,
My brother Bharat thirsts for sway,
The Ramayana
Still let him rule the nations, still
The throne of old Ikshváku fill.
Go, mark him well: his feelings learn,
And, ere we yet be near return.”
He ceased: and, garbed in human form,
Forth sped Hanúmán swift as storm.
Sublime in air he rose, and through
The region of his father flew.
He saw far far beneath his feet
Where Gangá's flood and Jumna meet.
Descending from the upper air
He entered Śringavera, where
King Guha's heart was well content
To hear the message Ráma sent.
Then, with his mighty strength renewed,
The Vánar chief his way pursued,
Válúkiní was far behind,
And Gomatí with forests lined,
And golden fields and pastures gay
With flocks and herds beneath him lay.
Then Nandigráma charmed his eye
Where flowers were bright with every dye,
And trees of lovely foliage made
With meeting boughs delightful shade,
Where women watched in trim array
Their little sons' and grandsons' play.
His eager eye on Bharat fell
Who sat before his lonely cell.
In hermit weed, with tangled hair,
Pale, weak, and worn with ceaseless care.
His royal pomp and state resigned
For Ráma still he watched and pined,
Still to his dreary vows adhered,
Canto CXXVII. Ráma's Message.
And royal Ráma's shoes revered.
Yet still the terror of his arm
Preserved the land from fear and harm.
The Wind-God's son, in form a man,
Raised reverent hands and thus began:
“Fond greeting, Prince, I bring to thee,
And Ráma's self has sent it: he
For whom thy spirit sorrows yet
As for a hapless anchoret
In Daṇḍak wood, in dire distress,
With matted hair and hermit dress.
This sorrow from thy bosom fling,
And hear the tale of joy I bring.
This day thy brother shalt thou meet
Exulting in his foe's defeat,
Freed from his toil and lengthened vow,
The light of victory on his brow,
With Sítá, Lakshmaṇ and his friends
Homeward at last his steps he bends.”
Then joy, too mighty for control,
Rushed in full flood o'er Bharat's soul;
His reeling sense and strength gave way,
And fainting on the earth he lay,
At length upspringing from the ground,
His arms about Hanúmán wound,
With tender tears of rapture sprung,
He dewed the neck to which he clung:
“Art thou a God or man,” he cried,
“Whom love and pity hither guide?
For this a hundred thousand kine,
A hundred villages be thine.
A score of maids of spotless lives
The Ramayana
To thee I give to be thy wives,
Of golden hue and bright of face,
Each lovely for her tender grace.”
He ceased a while by joy subdued,
And then his eager speech renewed.
Canto CXXVIII. Hanumán's Story.
“In doubt and fear long years have passed
And glorious tidings come at last.
True, true is now the ancient verse
Which men in time of bliss rehearse:
“Once only in a hundred years
Great joy to mortal men appears.”
But now his woes and triumph tell,
And loss and gain as each befell.”
He ceased: Hanúmán mighty-souled
The tale of Ráma's wanderings told
From that first day on which he stood
In the drear shade of Daṇḍak wood.
He told how fierce Virádha fell;
He told of Śarabhanga's cell
Where Ráma saw with wondering eyes
Indra descended from the skies.
He told how Śúrpaṇakhí came,
Her soul aglow with amorous flame,
And fled repulsed, with rage and tears,
Reft of her nose and severed ears.
He told how Ráma's might subdued
The giants' furious multitude;
Canto CXXIX. The Meeting With Bharat.
How Khara with the troops he led
And Triśirás and Dúshaṇ bled:
How Ráma, tempted from his cot,
The golden deer pursued and shot,
And Rávaṇ came and stole away
The Maithil queen his hapless prey,
When, as he fought, the dame to save,
His noble life Jatáyus gave:
How Ráma still the the search renewed,
The robber to his hold pursued,
Bridging the sea from shore to shore,
And found his queen to part no more.1025
Canto CXXIX. The Meeting With Bharat.
O'erwhelmed with rapture Bharat heard
The tale that all his being stirred,
And, heralding the glad event,
This order to Śatrughna sent:
“Let every shrine with flowers be gay
Let incense burn and music play.
Go forth, go forth to meet your king,
Let tabours sound and minstrels sing,
Let bards swell high the note of praise
Skilled in the lore of ancient days,
Call forth the royal matrons: call
Each noble from the council hall.
1025I have abridged Hanumán's outline of Ráma's adventures, with the details
of which we are already sufficiently acquainted.
The Ramayana
Send all we love and honour most,
Send Bráhmans and the warrior host,
A glorious company to bring
In triumph home our lord the king.”
Great rapture filled Śatrughna's breast,
Obedient to his brother's hest.
“Send forth ten thousand men” he cried,
“Let brawny arms be stoutly plied,
And, smoothing all with skilful care,
The road for Kośal's king prepare.
Then o'er the earth let thousands throw
Fresh showers of water cool as snow,
And others strew with garlands gay
With loveliest blooms our monarch's way.
On tower and temple porch and gate
Let banners wave in royal state,
And be each roof and terrace lined
With blossoms loose and chaplets twined.”
The nobles hasting forth fulfilled
His order as Śatrughna willed.
Sublime on elephants they rode
Whose gilded girths with jewels glowed.
Attended close by thousands more
Gay with the gear and flags they bore.
A thousand chiefs their steeds bestrode,
Their glittering cars a thousand showed.
And countless hosts in rich array
Pursued on foot their eager way.
Veiled from the air with silken screens
In litters rode the widowed queens.
Kausalyá first, acknowledged head
And sovereign of the household, led:
Canto CXXIX. The Meeting With Bharat.
Sumitrá next, and after, dames
Of lower rank and humbler names.
Then compassed by a white-robed throng
Of Bráhmans, heralded with song,
With shouts of joy from countless throats,
And shells' and tambours' mingled notes,
And drums resounding long and loud,
Exulting Bharat joined the crowd.
Still on his head, well-trained in lore
Of duty, Ráma's shoes he bore.
The moon-white canopy was spread
With flowery twine engarlanded,
And jewelled cheuries, meet to hold
O'er Ráma's brow, shone bright with gold,
Though Nandigráma's town they neared,
Of Ráma yet no sign appeared.
Then Bharat called the Vánar chief
And questioned thus in doubt and grief:
“Hast thou uncertain, like thy kind,
A sweet delusive guile designed?
Where, where is royal Ráma? show
The hero, victor of the foe.
I gaze, but see no Vánars still
Who wear each varied shape at will.”
In eager love thus Bharat cried,
And thus the Wind-God's son replied:
“Look, Bharat, on those laden trees
That murmur with the song of bees;
For Ráma's sake the saint has made
Untimely fruits, unwonted shade.
Such power in ages long ago
Could Indra's gracious boon bestow.
O, hear the Vánars' voices, hear
The Ramayana
The shouting which proclaims them near.
E'en now about to cross they seem
Sweet Gomatí's delightful stream.
I see, I see the car designed
By Brahmá's own creative mind,
The car which, radiant as the moon,
Moves at the will by Brahmá's boon;
The car which once was Rávan's pride,
The victor's spoil when Rávan died.
Look, there are Raghu's sons: between
The brothers stands the rescued queen.
There is Vibhishaṇ full in view,
Sugríva and his retinue.”
He ceased: then rapture loosed each tongue:
From men and dames, from old and young,
One long, one universal cry,
'Tis he, 'tis Ráma, smote the sky.
All lighted down with eager speed
From elephant and car and steed,
And every joyful eye intent
On Ráma's moonbright face was bent.
Entranced a moment Bharat gazed:
Then reverential hands he raised,
And on his brother humbly pressed
The honours due to welcome guest.
Then Bharat clomb the car to greet
His king and bowed him at his feet,
Till Ráma raised him face to face
And held him in a close embrace.
Then Lakshmaṇ and the Maithil dame
He greeted as he spoke his name1026
1026In these respectful salutations the person who salutes his superior mentions
his own name even when it is well known to the person whom he salutes.
Canto CXXIX. The Meeting With Bharat.
He greeted next, supreme in place,
The sovereign of the Vánar race,
And Jámbaván and Báli's son,
And lords and chiefs, omitting none.1027
Sugríva to his heart he pressed
And thus with grateful words addressed:
“Four brothers, Vánar king, were we,
And now we boast a fifth in thee.
By kindly acts a friend we know:
Offence and wrong proclaim the foe.”
To King Vibhishaṇ then he spake:
“Well hast thou fought for Ráma's sake.”
Nor was the brave Śatrughna slow
His reverential love to show
To both his brothers, as was meet,
And venerate the lady's feet.
Then Ráma to his mother came,
Saw her pale cheek and wasted frame,
With gentle words her heart consoled,
And clasped her feet with loving hold.
Then at Sumitrá's feet he bent,
And fair Kaikeyí's, reverent,
Greeted each dame from chief to least,
And bowed him to the household priest.
Up rose a shout from all the throng:
“O welcome, Ráma, mourned so long.
Welcome, Kausalyá's joy and pride,”
Ten hundred thousand voices cried.
Then Bharat placed, in duty taught,
On Ráma's feet the shoes he brought:
“My King,” he cried, “receive again
1027I have omitted the chieftains' names as they could not be introduced without
padding. They are Mainda, Dwivid, Níla, Rishabh, Susheṇ, Nala, Gaváksha,
Gandhamádan, Śarabh, and Panas.
The Ramayana
The pledge preserved through years of pain,
The rule and lordship of the land
Entrusted to my weaker hand.
No more I sigh o'er sorrows past,
My birth and life are blest at last
In the glad sight this day has shown,
When Ráma comes to rule his own.”
He ceased: the faithful love that moved
The prince's soul each heart approved;
Nor could the Vánar chiefs refrain
From tender tears that fell like rain.
Then Ráma, stirred with joy anew,
His arms about his brother threw,
And to the grove his course he bent
Where Bharat's hermit days were spent.
Alighting in that pure retreat
He pressed the earth with eager feet.
Then, at his hest, the car rose high
And sailing through the northern sky
Sped homeward to the Lord of Gold
Who owned the wondrous prize of old.1028
Canto CXXX. The Consecration.
1028The following addition is found in the Bengal recension: But Vaiśravaṇ
(Kuvera) when he beheld his chariot said unto it: “Go, and carry Ráma, and
come unto me when my thought shall call thee, And the chariot returned unto
Ráma;” and he honoured it when he had heard what had passed.
Canto CXXX. The Consecration.
Then, reverent hand to hand applied,
Thus Bharat to his brother cried:
“Thy realm, O King, is now restored,
Uninjured to the rightful lord.
This feeble arm with toil and pain,
The weighty charge could scarce sustain.
And the great burthen wellnigh broke
The neck untrained to bear the yoke.
The royal swan outspeeds the crow:
The steed is swift, the mule is slow,
Nor can my feeble feet be led
O'er the rough ways where thine should tread.
Now grant what all thy subjects ask:
Begin, O King, thy royal task.
Now let our longing eyes behold
The glorious rite ordained of old,
And on the new-found monarch's head
Let consecrating drops be shed.”
He ceased; victorious Ráma bent
His head in token of assent.
He sat, and tonsors trimmed with care
His tangles of neglected hair
Then, duly bathed, the hero shone
With all his splendid raiment on.
And Sítá with the matrons' aid
Her limbs in shining robes arrayed,
Sumantra then, the charioteer,
Drew, ordered by Śatrughna near,
And stayed within the hermit grove
The chariot and the steeds he drove.
Therein Sugríva's consorts, graced
With gems, and Ráma's queen were placed,
All fain Ayodhyá to behold:
The Ramayana
And swift away the chariot rolled.
Like Indra Lord of Thousand Eyes,
Drawn by fleet lions through the skies.
Thus radiant in his glory showed
King Ráma as he homeward rode,
In power and might unparalleled.
The reins the hand of Bharat held.
Above the peerless victor's head
The snow-white shade Śatrughna spread,
And Lakshmaṇ's ever-ready hand
His forehead with a chourie fanned.
Vibhishaṇ close to Lakshmaṇ's side
Sharing his task a chourie plied.
Sugríva on Śatrunjay came,
An elephant of hugest frame:
Nine thousand others bore, behind,
The chieftains of the Vánar kind
All gay, in forms of human mould,
With rich attire and gems and gold.
Thus borne along in royal state
King Ráma reached Ayodbyá's gate
With merry noise of shells and drums
And joyful shouts, He comes, he comes,
A Bráhman host with solemn tread,
And kine the long procession led,
And happy maids in ordered bands
Threw grain and gold with liberal hands.
Neath gorgeous flags that waved in rows
On towers and roofs and porticoes.
Mid merry crowds who sang and cheered
The palace of the king they neared.
Then Raghu's son to Bharat, best
Of duty's slaves, these words addressed:
“Pass onward to the monarch's hall.
Canto CXXX. The Consecration.
The high-souled Vánars with thee call,
And let the chieftains, as is meet,
The widows of our father greet.
And to the Vánar king assign
Those chambers, best of all, which shine
With lazulite and pearl inlaid,
And pleasant grounds with flowers and shade.”
He ceased: and Bharat bent his head;
Sugríva by the hand he led
And passed within the palace where
Stood couches which Śatrughna's care,
With robes and hangings richly dyed,
And burning lamps, had seen supplied.
Then Bharat spake: “I pray thee, friend,
Thy speedy messengers to send,
Each sacred requisite to bring
That we may consecrate our king.”
Sugríva raised four urns of gold,
The water for the rite to hold,
And bade four swiftest Vánars flee
And fill them from each distant sea.
Then east and west and south and north
The Vánar envoys hastened forth.
Each in swift flight an ocean sought
And back through air his treasure brought,
And full five hundred floods beside
Pure water for the king supplied.
Then girt by many a Bráhman sage,
Vaśishṭha, chief for reverend age,
High on a throne with jewels graced
King Ráma and his Sítá placed.
There by Jábáli, far revered,
Vijay and Kaśyap's son appeared;
The Ramayana
By Gautam's side Kátváyan stood,
And Vámadeva wise and good,
Whose holy hands in order shed
The pure sweet drops on Ráma's head.
Then priests and maids and warriors, all
Approaching at Vaśishṭha's call,
With sacred drops bedewed their king,
The centre of a joyous ring,
The guardians of the worlds, on high,
And all the children of the sky
From herbs wherewith their hands were filled
Rare juices on his brow distilled.
His brows were bound with glistering gold
Which Manu's self had worn of old,
Bright with the flash of many a gem
His sire's ancestral diadem.
Śatrughna lent his willing aid
And o'er him held the regal shade:
The monarchs whom his arm had saved
The chouries round his forehead waved.
A golden chain, that flashed and glowed
With gems the God of Wind bestowed:
Mahendra gave a glorious string
Of fairest pearls to deck the king,
The skies with acclamation rang,
The gay nymphs danced, the minstrels sang.
On that blest day the joyful plain
Was clothed anew with golden grain.
The trees the witching influence knew,
And bent with fruits of loveliest hue,
And Ráma's consecration lent
New sweetness to each flowret's scent.
The monarch, joy of Raghu's line,
Gave largess to the Bráhmans, kine
Canto CXXX. The Consecration.
And steeds unnumbered, wealth untold
Of robes and pearls and gems and gold.
A jewelled chain, whose lustre passed
The glory of the sun, he cast
About his friend Sugríva's neck;
And, Angad Báli's son to deck,
He gave a pair of armlets bright
With diamond and lazulite.
A string of pearls of matchless hue
Which gleams like tender moonlight threw
Adorned with gems of brightest sheen,
He gave to grace his darling queen.
The offering from his hand received
A moment on her bosom heaved;
Then from her neck the chain she drew,
A glance on all the Vánars threw,
And wistful eyes on Ráma bent
As still she held the ornament.
Her wish he knew, and made reply
To that mute question of her eye:
“Yea, love; the chain on him bestow
Whose wisdom truth and might we know,
The firm ally, the faithful friend
Through toil and peril to the end.”
Then on Hanúmán's bosom hung
The chain which Sítá's hand had flung:
So may a cloud, when winds are still
With moon-lit silver gird a hill.
The Ramayana
To every Vánar Ráma gave
Rich treasures from the mine and wave.
And with their honours well content
Homeward their steps the chieftains bent.
Ten thousand years Ayodhyá, blest
With Ráma's rule, had peace and rest,
No widow mourned her murdered mate,
No house was ever desolate.
The happy land no murrain knew,
The flocks and herds increased and grew.
The earth her kindly fruits supplied,
No harvest failed, no children died.
Unknown were want, disease, and crime:
So calm, so happy was the time.1029
1029Here follows in the original an enumeration of the chief blessings which
will attend the man or woman who reads or hears read this tale of Ráma. These
blessings are briefly mentioned at the end of the first Canto of the first book,
and it appears unnecessary to repeat them here in their amplified form. The
Bengal recension (Gorresio's edition) gives them more concisely as follows:
“This is the great first poem blessed and glorious, which gives long life to
men and victory to kings, the poem which Válmíki made. He who listens to
this wondrous tale of Ráma unwearied in action shall be absolved from all his
sins. By listening to the deeds of Ráma he who wishes for sons shall obtain
his heart's desire, and to him who longs for riches shall riches be given. The
virgin who asks for a husband shall obtain a husband suited to her mind, and
shall meet again her dear kinsfolk who are far away. They who hear this poem
which Válmíki made shall obtain all their desires and all their prayers shall be
Section XIII. Rávan Doomed.
Afterwards Rishyaśring said again to the King “I will perform
another sacrificial act to secure thee a son.” Then the son of
Vibháṇdak, of subdued passions, seeking the happiness of the
king, proceeded to perform the sacrifice for the accomplishment
of his wishes. Hither were previously collected the gods, with the
Gandharvas, the Siddhas and the sages, for the sake of receiving
their respective shares, Brahmá too, the sovereign of the gods,
with Stháṇu, and Náráyaṇa, chief of beings and the four support-
ers of the universe, and the divine mothers of all the celestials,
met together there. To the Aśvamedha, the great sacrifice of
the magnanimous monarch, came also Indra the glorious one,
surrounded by the Maruts. Rishyaśring then supplicated the gods
assembled for their share of the sacrifice (saying), “This devout
king Daśaratha, who, through the desire of offspring, confiding
in you, has performed sacred austerities, and who has offered to
you the sacrifice called Aśvamedha, is about to perform another
sacrifice for the sake of obtaining sons: To him thus desirous of
offspring be pleased to grant the blessing: I supplicate you all
with joined hands. May he have four sons, renowned through the
universe.” The gods replied to the sage's son supplicating with
joined hands, “Be it so: thou, O Bráhman, art ever to be regarded
by us, as the king is in a peculiar manner. The lord of men by
this sacrifice shall obtain the great object of his desires.” Having
thus said, the gods preceded by Indra, disappeared.
The Ramayana
They all then having seen that (sacrifice) performed by the
great sage according to the ordinance went to Prajápati the lord
of mankind, and with joined hands addressed Brahmá the giver
of blessings, “O Brahmá, the Ráksha Rávaṇa by name, to whom
a blessing was awarded by thee, through pride troubleth all of
us the gods, and even the great sages, who perpetually practise
sacred austerities. We, O glorious one, regarding the promise
formerly granted by thy kindness that he should be invulnerable
to the gods, the Dánavas and the Yakshas have born (sic) all,
(his oppression); this lord of Rákshas therefore distresses the
universe; and, inflated by this promise unjustly vexes the divine
sages, theYakshas, andGandharvas, theAsuras, andmen: where
Rávaṇa remains there the sun loses his force, the winds through
fear of him do not blow; the fire ceases to burn; the rolling ocean,
seeing him, ceases to move its waves. Viśravas, distressed by his
power, has abandoned Lanká and fled. O divine one save us from
Rávaṇa, who fills the world with noise and tumult. O giver of
desired things, be pleased to contrive a way for his destruction.”
Brahmá thus informed by the devas, reflecting, replied, “Oh!
I have devised the method for slaying this outrageous tyrant.
Upon his requesting, ‘May I be invulnerable to the divine sages,
the Gaundharvas, the Yakshas, the Rákshasas and the serpents,’
I replied ‘Be it so.’ This Ráksha, through contempt, said nothing
respecting man; therefore this wicked one shall be destroyed by
man.” The gods, preceded by Śakra, hearing these words spoken
by Brahmá, were filled with joy.
At this time Vishṇu the glorious, the lord of the world, ar-
rayed in yellow, with hand ornaments of glowing gold, riding
on Vinateya, as the sun on a cloud, arrived with his conch, his
discus, and his club in his hand. Being adored by the excellent
celestials, and welcomed by Brahmá, he drew near and stood be-
fore him. All the gods then addressed Vishṇu, “O Madhusudana,
thou art able to abolish the distress of the distressed. We intreat
thee, be our sanctuary, O Vishṇu.” Vishṇu replied, “Say, what
Section XIII. Rávan Doomed.
shall I do?” The celestials hearing these his words added further.
“The virtuous, the encourager of excellence, eminent for truth,
the firm observer of his vows, being childless, is performing
an Aśvamedha for the purpose of obtaining offspring. For the
sake of the good of the universe, we intreat thee, O Vishṇu, to
become his son. Dividing thyself into four parts, in the wombs
of his three consorts equal to Hari, Śrí, and Kirti, assume the
sonship of king Daśaratha, the lord of Ayodhyá, eminent in the
knowledge of duty, generous and illustrious, as the great sages.
Thus becoming man, O Vishṇu, conquer in battle Rávaṇa, the
terror of the universe, who is invulnerable to the gods. This
ignorant Rákshasa Rávaṇa, by the exertion of his power, afflicts
the gods, the Gandharvaa, the Siddhas, and the most excellent
sages; these sages, the Gandharvas, and the Apsaras, sporting in
the forest Nandana have been destroyed by that furious one. We,
with the sages, are come to thee seeking his destruction. The
Siddhas, the Gandharvas, and the Yakshas betake themselves
to thee, thou art our only refuge; O Deva, afflicter of enemies,
regard the world of men, and destroy the enemy of the gods.”
Vishṇu, the sovereign of the gods, the chief of the celestials,
adored by all beings, being thus supplicated, replied to all the
assembled gods (standing) before Brahmá, “Abandon fear; peace
be with you; for your benefit having killed Rávaṇa the cruel,
destructivelyactive, thecauseoffeartothedivinesages,together
with all his posterity, his courtiers and counsellors, and his re-
lations, and friends, protecting the earth, I will remain incarnate
among men for the space of eleven thousand years.”
Having given this promise to the gods, the divine Vishṇu,
ardent in the work, sought a birth-place among men. Dividing
himself into four parts, he whose eyes resemble the lotus and the
pulasa, the lotus petal-eyed, chose for his father Daśaratha the
sovereign of men. The divine sages then with the Gandharvas,
the Rudras, and the (different sorts of) Apsaras, in the most
excellent strains, praised the destroyer of Madhu, (saying) “Root
The Ramayana
up Rávaṇa, of fervid energy, the devastator, the enemy of Indra
swollen with pride. Destroy him, who causes universal lamen-
tation, the annoyer of the holy ascetics, terrible, the terror of
the devout Tapaswis. Having destroyed Rávaṇa, tremendously
powerful, who causes universal weeping, together with his army
and friends, dismissing all sorrow, return to heaven, the place
free from stain and sin, and protected by the sovereign of the
celestial powers.”
Thus far the Section, containing the plan for the death of
Prudens ille, voluminum sacrorum gnarus, responsum quod ded-
erat aliquamdiu meditatus, mente ad se revocata regem deuno
est effatus: Parabo tibi aliud sacrum, genitale, prolis masculae
adipiscendae gratia, cum carminibus in ATHARVANIS exordio ex-
pressis rite peragendum. Tum coepit modestus Vibhândaci filius,
regis commodis intentus, parare sacrum, quo eius desiderium
expleret. Iam'antea eo convenerant, ut suam quisque portionem
acciperent, Dî cum fidicinum coelestium choris, Beatique cum
Sapientibus; Brachman Superûm regnator, Sthânus nec non au-
gustus Nârâyanus, Indrasque almus, coram visendus Ventorum
cohorte circumdatus, in magno isto sacrificio equino regis mag-
nanimi. Ibidem vates ille deos, qui portiones suas accipiendi
gratia advenerant, apprecatus, En inquit, hicce ex Dasarathus
filiorum desiderio castimoniis adstrictus, fidei plenus, vestrum
numen adoravit sacrificio equino. Nunc iterum accingit se ad
aliud sacrum peragendum: quamobrem aequum est, ut filios
cupienti vos faveatis. Ille ego, qui manus supplices tendo, vos
universos pro eo apprecor: nascantur ei filii quatuor, faina per
triplicem mundum clari. Divi supplicem vatis filium invicem
affari: Fiat quod petis! Tu nobis, virsancte, imprimis es veneran-
dus, nee minus rex ille; compos fiet voti sui egregii hominum
princeps. Ita locuti Dî Indra duce, ex oculis evanuerunt.
Superi vero, legitime in concilio congregati. BRACHMANEM
mundi creatorem his verbis compellarunt: Tuo munere auctus,
O Brachman! gigas nomine Râvanas, prae superbia nos omnes
vexat, pariterque Sapientes castimoniis gaudentes. A te pro-
pitio olim ex voto ei hoc munus concessum fuit, ut ne a diis,
Danuidis, Geniisve necari posset. Nos, oraculum tuum reveriti,
facinora eius qualiacunque toleramus. At ille gigantum tyrannus
ternos mundos gravibus iniuriis vexat Deos, Sapientes, Genios,
Fidicines coelestes, Titanes, mortales denique, exsuperat ille ae-
gre cohibendus, tuoque munere demens. Non ibi calet sol, neque
Ventuspraetimorespirat, neeflagratignis, ubiRâvanasversatur.
Ipse oceanus, vagis fluctibus redimitus, isto viso stat immotus;
eiectus fuit e sede sua Cuvêrus, huius robore vexatus. Ergo
ingens nobis periculum imminet ab hoc gigante visu horribili;
tuum est, alme Parens! auxilium parare, quo hic deleatur. Ita ad-
monitus ille a diis universis, paulisper meditatus, Ehem! inquit,
hancce inveni rationem nefarium istum necandi. Petierat is a
me, ut a Gandharvis, a Geniis, a Divis, Danuibus Gigantibusque
necari non posset et me annuente voto suo potitus est. Prae con-
temptu vero monstrum illud homines non commemoravit: ideo
ab homine est necandus: nullum aliud exstat leti genus, quod ei
sit fatale. Postquam audiverant gratum hunc sermonem BRACH-
MANIS ore prolatum, Dî cum duce suo Indra summopere gaudio
erecti sunt. Eodem temporis momento Vishnus, istuc accessit,
splendore insignis, concham, discum et clavum manibus gestans,
croceo vestitu, mundi dominus, vulturis Vinateii dorso, sicuti
sol nimbo, vectus, armillas ex auro candente gerens, salutatus a
The Ramayana
Superûm primoribus. Quem laudibus celebratum reverenter Dî
universi compellarunt. Tu animantium afflictorum es vindex,
Madhûs interfector! quamobrem nos afflicti te apprecamur. Sis
praesidio nobis numine tuo inconcusso. Dicite, inquit Vishnus,
quid pro vobis facere me oporteat. Audito eius sermone, Dî hunc
in modum respondent: Rex quidam, nomine Dasarathus, austeris
castimoniis sese castigavit, litavit sacrificio equino, prolis cu-
pidus et prole carens. Nostro hortatu tu, Vishnus, conditionem
natorum eius subeas: ex tribus eius uxoribus, Pudicitiae, Venus-
tatis et Famae similibus, nasci, velis, temetipsum quadrifariam
dividens. IbituinhumanamnaturamconversusRâvanam,gravis-
simam mundi pestem, diis insuperabilem, O Vishnus! proelio
caede. Gigas ille vecors Râvanas Deos cum Fidicinum choris,
Beatos et Sapientes praestantissimos vexat, audacia superbiens.
Etenim ab hoc furioso Sapientes Fidicines et nymphae, ludentes
in Nandano viridario, sunt proculcati. Tu es nostrum omnium
summa salus, divine bellator! Ut deoram hostes extinguas, ad
sortem humanam animum converte. Augustus ille Nârâyanus,
compellavit: Quare, quaeso, hac in re negotium vestrum a me po-
tissimum, corporea specie palam facto, est peragendum aut unde
tantus vobis terror fuit iniectus? His verbis a Vishnû interrogati
Dîtaliaproferre: Terrornobisinstat, OVishnus! aRâvanamundi
direptore; a quo nos vindicare, corpore humano assumpto, tuum
est. Nemo alius coelicoiarum praeter te hunc scelestum enecare
potis est. Nimirum ille, O hostium domitor! per diuturnum tem-
pusseseexcruciaveratseverissimaabstinentia, quamagnushicce
rerum Parens propitius ipsi redditus est. Itaque almus votorum
sponsor olim ei concessit securitatem ab ommibus animantibus,
hominibus tamen exceptis. Hinc ilium, voti compotem, non ali-
unde quam ab homine necis periculum urget: tu ergo, humanitate
assumpta eum intertice. Sic monitus Vishnus, Superûm princeps,
quem mundus universus adorat, magnum Parentem oeterosque
deos, in concilio congregatos, recti auctores, affatur: Mittite
timorem; bene bobis eveniat! Vestrae salutis gratia, postquam
praelio necavero Râvanam cum filiis nepotibusque, cum amicis,
ministris, cognatis sociisque, crudelem istum aegre cohibendum,
qui divinis Sapientibus terrorem meutit, per decem millia anno-
rum decies centenis additis, commorabor in mortalium sedibus,
orbemterrarumimperioregens. TumdivinisapientesetFidicines
interfectorem hymnis, quales sedem aetheriam decent.
“Râvanam ilium insolentem, acri impetu actum, superbia ela-
tum, Superûm hostem, tumultus cientem, bonorum piorumque
pestem, humanitate assumpta pessamdare tuum est.”
Ma Riseyasringo soggiunse poscia al re: Tappresterò io un altro
rito santissimo, genitale, onde tu conseguisca la prole che tu
bramí. E in quel punto stesso il saggio figliulo di Vibhândaco,
intentoallaprosperitàdelre, posemanoalsacroritopercondurre
ad effetto il suo desiderio. Già erano prima, per ricevere ciascuno
la sua parte, qui convenuti al gran sacrifizio del re magnanimo
l'Asvamedha, i Devi coi Gandharvi, i Siddhi e i Muni, Brahma
Signor dei Sari, Sthânu e l' Augusto Nârâyana, i quattio custodi
dell' universo e le Madri degli Iddu, i Yacsi insieme cogli Dei,
e il sovrano, venerando Indra, visibile, circondato dalla schiera
dei Maruti. Quivi così parlò Riscyasringo agli Dei venuti a parte-
cipare del sacrifizio: Questo è il re Dasaratha, che per desiderio
di progenie già s' astrinse ad osservanze austeré, e testè pieno di
fede ha a voi, O eccelsi, sacrificato con un Asvamedha. Ora egli,
sollecito d' aver figli, si dispone ad adempiere un nuovo rito;
The Ramayana
vogliate essere favorevole a lui che sospira progenie. Io alzo a
voi supplici le mani, e voi tutti per lui imploro: nascano a lui
quattro figli degni d'essere celebrati pei tre mondi. Risposero gli
Dei al supplichevole figliuolo del Risci: Sia fatto ciò che chiedi;
a te ed al re parimente si debbe da noi, O Brahmano, sommo
pregio; canseguirà il re per questo sacro rito il suo suppremo
desiderio. Ciò detto disparvero i Numi preceduti da Indra.
Poichè videro gli Dei compiersi debitamente dal gran Risci
l'oblazione, venuti al cospetto di Brahma facitor del mondo, sig-
nor delle creature, così parlarono reverenti a lui dator di grazie:
O Brahma, un Racsaso per nome Râvano, eui tu fosti largo del
tuo favore, è per superbia infesto a noi tutti e ai grandi Saggi
penitenti. Undi, ONume, augusto, tupropizioaluigliaccordasti
il favore, ch' egli bramava, di non poter essere ucciso dagli Dei,
dai Dânavi nè dai Yacsi: noi venerando i tuoi oracoli, ogni cosa
sopportiamo da costui. Quindi il signor dei Racsasi infesta con
gliAsuriegliuomini: tuttiegliopprimeindegnamenteinorgogli-
to pel tuo dono. Colà dove si trova Râvano, più non isfavilla
per timore il sole, più non spira il vento, più non fiammeggia
il fuoco: l' oceano stesso cui fan corona i vasti flutti, veggendo
costui, tutto si turba e si commuove. Stretto dalla forza di costui
e ridotto allo stremo dovette Vaisravano abbandonare Lancâ. Da
questo Râvano, terror del mondo, tu ne proteggi, O almo Nume:
degna, O dator d'ogni bene, trovar modo ad estirpar costui. Fatto
di queste cose conscio dai Devi, stette alquanto meditando, poi
rispose Brahma: Orsù! è stabilito il modo onde distruggere
questo iniquo. Egli a me chiese, ed io gliel concessi, di non poter
essere ucciso dai Devi, dai Risci, dai Gandharvi, dai Yacsi, dai
Racsasi nè dai Serpenti; ma per disprezzo non fece menzione
degli uomini quel Racso: or bene, sarà quell' empio ucciso da
un uomo. Udite le fauste parole profferte da Brahma, furono per
ogni parte liete gli Iddii col loro duce Indra. In questo mezzo
quì sopravvenne raggiante d'immensa luce il venerando Visnu,
pensato da Brahma nell' immortal sua mente, siccome atto ad
estirpar colui; Allora Brahma colla schiera de' Celesti così parlò
a Visnu: Tu sei il conforto delle gente oppresse, O distruttor di
Madhu: noi quindi a te supplichiamo afflitti: sia tu nostro sosteg-
no, O Aciuto. Dite, loro rispose Visnu, quale cosa io debba far
pervoi; egliDei, uditequesteparole, cosisoggiunsero: Unreper
nome Dasaratha, giusto, virtuoso, veridico e pio, non haprogenie
e la desidera: ei già s' impose durissime penitenze, ed ora ha
sacrificato con un Asvamedha: tu, per nostro consiglio, O Visnu,
consenti a divenir suo figlio: fatte di te quattro parti, ti manifesta,
O invocato dalle genti, nel seno delle quattro sue consorti, simili
alla venusta Dea. Così esortato dagli Dei quivi presenti, l'augusto
Nârâyana loro rispose queste opportune parole: Quale opra s'ha
da me, fatto visible nel mondo, a compiere per voi, O Devi?
e d'onde in voi cotal terrore? Intese le parole di Visnu, così
risposero gli Dei: Il nostro terrore. O Visnu, nasce da un Racsaso
per nome Râvano, spavento dell' universo. Vestendo umano
corpo, tu debbi esterminar costui. Nessuno fra i Celesti, fuorchè
tu solo, è valevole ad uccidere quell' iniquo. Egli, O domator de'
tuoi nemici, sostenne per lungo tempo acerbissime macerazioni:
per esse fu di lui contento l'augusto sommo Genitore: e un di gli
accordò propizio la sicurezza da tutti gli esseri, eccettutine gli
uomini. Per questo favore a lui concesso nou ha egli a temere
offesa da alcuna parte, fuorchè dall' uomo, perciò, assumendo la
natura umana, costui tu uccidi. Egli, il peggior di tutti i Racsasi,
insano per la forza che gli infonde il dono avuto, da travaglio ai
Devi ed ai Gaudharvi, ai Risci, ai Muni ed ai mortali. Egli, sicuro
da morte pel favore ottenuto, è turbatore dei sacrifizj, nemico ed
uccisor dei Brahmi, divoratore degli uomini, peste del mondo.
Da lui furono assaliti re coi loro carri ed elefanti; altri percessi e
fugati si dispersero per ogni dove. Da lui furono divorati Risci
ed Apsarase: egli insomma oltracotato continuamente e quasi per
ischerzo tutti travaglia i sette mondi. Perciò, O terribile ai nemici
è stabilita la morte di costui per opra d'un uomo; poich' un di
The Ramayana
per superbia del dono tutti sprezzò gli uomini. Tu, O supremo
fra i Numi, dei, umanandoti, estirpare questo tremendo, superbo
Ràvano, oltracotato, a noi nemico, terrore e flagello dei penitenti.
De nouveau Rishyaçringa tint ce langage au Monarque: “Je vais
célébrer un autre sacrifice, afin que le ciel accorde à tes vœux
les enfants que tu souhaites.” Cela dit, cherchant le bonheur du
roi et pour l'accomplissement de son désir, le fils puissant de
Vibhándaka se mit à célébrer ce nouveau sacrifice.
Là auparavant, étaient venus déjà recevoir une part de l' of-
frande les Dieux, accompagnés des Gaudharvas, et les Siddhas
avec les Mounis divins, Brahma, le monarque des Souras, l'
immuable Śiva, et l' auguste Náráyana, et les quatre gardiens vig-
ilants du monde, et les mères des Immortels, et tous les Dieux,
escortés des Yakshas, et le maître éminent du ciel, Indra, qui
se manifestait aux yeux, environné par l' essaim des Maroutes.
Alors ce jeune anachorète avait supplié tous les Dieux, que le
désir d'une part dans l' offrande avait conduits á l' açwamédha,
cettegrandecérémoniedeceroimagnanime; et,danscemoment,
l' époux de Śántá les conjurait ainsi pour la seconde fois: “Cet
homme en prières, c'est le roi Daçaratha, qui est privé de fils. Il
est rempli d' une foi vive; il s'est infligé de pénibles austérités;
il vous a déjà servi, divinités augustes, le sacrifice d'un açwa-
médha, et maintenant il s'étudie encore à vous plaire avec ce
nouveau sacrifice dans l'espérance que vous lui donnerez les fils,
où tendent ses désirs. Versez donc sur lui votre bienveillance et
daignez sourire à son vœu pour des fils. C'est pour lui que moi
ici, les mains jointes, je vous adresse à tous mes supplications:
envoyez-lui quatre fils, qui soient vantés dans les trois mondes!”
“Ouí! répondirent les Dieux au fils suppliant du rishi; tu
mérites que nous t'écoutions avec faveur, toi, brahme saint, et
même, en premier lieu, ce roi.
Comme récompense de ces
différents sacrifices, le monarque obtendra cet objet le plus cher
de ses désirs.”
Ayant aussi parlé et vu que le grand saint avait mis fin suiv-
ant les rites à son pieux sacrifice, les Dieux, Indra à leur tête,
s'évanouissent dans le vide des airs et se rendent vers l' architecte
des mondes, le souverain des créatures, le donateur des biens,
vers Brahma enfin, auquel tous, les mains jointes, ils adressent
les paroles suivantes: “O Brahma, un rakshasa, nommé Râvana,
tourne su mal les grâces, qu'il a reçues de toi. Dans son orgueil,
il nous opprime tous; il opprime avec nous les grands anchorètes,
qui se font un bonheur des macérations: car jadis, ayant su te
plaire, O Bhagavat, il a reçu de toi ce don incomparable. ‘Oui,
as-tu dit, exauçant le vœu du mauvais Génie; Dieu. Yaksha ou
Démon ne pourra jamais causer ta mort!’ Et nous, par qui ta
parole est respectée, nous avons tout supporté de ce roi des rak-
shasas, quiécrasedesatyrannielestroismondes, ouilpromènel'
injure impunément. Enorgueilli de ce don victorieux, il opprime
indignement les Dieux, les rishis, les Yakshas, les Gandharvas,
les Asouras et les enfants de Manou. Là ou se tient Râvana, la
peur empêche le soleil d'échauffer, le vent craint de souffler, et
le feu n'ose flamboyer. A son aspect, la guirlande même des
grands flots tremble au sein de la mer. Accablé par sa vigueur
indomptable, Kouvéra défait lui a cédé Lanká. Suave-nous donc,
ô toi, qui reposes daus le bonheur absolu; sauve-nous de Râvana,
le fléau des mondes. Daigne, ô toi, qui souris aux vœux du sup-
pliant, daigne imaginer un expedient pour ôter la vie à ce cruel
Démon.” Les Dieux ayant ainsi dénoncé leurs maux à Brahma,
il réfléchit un instant et leur tint ce langage: “Bien, voici que
j'ai découvert un moyen pour tuer ce Génie scélérat. Que ni les
Dieux, a-t-il dit, ni les rishis, ni les Gandharvas ni les Yakshas, ni
les rakshasas, ni les Nágas même ne puissent me donner la mort!
The Ramayana
Soit lui ai-je répondu. Mais, par dédain pour la force humaine,
les hommes n'ont pas été compris daus sa demande. C'est donc
par la main d' un homme, qu'il faut immoler ce méchant.” Ainsi
tombée de la bouche du créateur, cette parole salutaire satisfit
pleinement le roi des habitants du ciel et tous les Dieux avec lui.
Lá, danscemêmeinstant, survintlefortunéVisnou, revêtud'une
splendeur infinie; car c'était a lui, que Brahma avait pensé dans
son âme pour la mort du tyran. Celui-ci donc avec l'essaim des
ImmortelsadresseàVishnoucesparoles: “MeurtrierdeMadhou,
comme tu aimes á tirer de l'affliction les êtres malheureux, nous
te supplions, nous qui sommes plongés dans la tristesse, Divinité
auguste, sois notre asyle!” “Dites! reprit Vishnou; que dois-je
faire?” “Ayant oui les paroles de l'ineffable, tous les Dieux re-
pondirent: Il est un roi nommé Daçaratha; il a embrassé une
très-duré pénitence; il a célébré même le sacrifice d'un açwa-
medha, parce qu'il n'a point de fils et qu'il veut en obtenir du ciel.
Il est inébranlable dans sa piété, il est vanté pour ses vertus; la
justice est son caractère, la verite est sa parole. Acquiesce donc
à notre demande, ô toi, Vishnou, et consens à naître comme son
fils. Divisé en quatre portions de toi-même, daigne, ô toi, qui
foulesauxpiedstesennemis, daignet'incarnerdansleseindeses
trois épouses, belles comme la déesse de la beauté.” Náráyana,
le maître, non perceptible aux sens, mais qui alors s' était rendu
visible, Náráyana répondit cette parole salutaire aux Dieux, qui i
invitaient à cet heroique avatára. Quelle chose, une fois revêtu
de cette incarnation, faudra-t-il encore que je fasse pour vous,
et de quelle part vient la terreur, qui vous trouble ainsi? A ces
mots du grand Vishnou: “C'est le démon Rávana, reprirent les
Dieux; c'est lui, Vishnou, cette désolation des mondes, qui nous
inspire un tel effroi. Enveloppe-toi d'un corps, humain, et qu'il
te plaise arrâcher du monde cette blessante epine; car nul autre
que toi parmi les habitants du ciel n'est capable d'immoler ce
pécheur. Sache que longtemps il s'est imposé la plus austére
pénitence, et que par elle il s'est rendu agreable au suprême
ayeul de toutes les créatures. Aussi le distributeur ineffable des
gràces lui a-t-il accordé ce don insigne d'être invulnérable à tous
les êtres, l' homme seul excepté. Puisque, doué ainsi de cette
faveur, la mort terrible et sûre ne peut venir à lui de nulle autre
part que de l'homme, va, dompteur puissant de tes ennemis, va
dans la condition humaine, et tue-le. Car ce don, auquel on ne
peut résister, élevant au plus haut point l'ivresse de sa force, le
vil rakshasa tourmente les Dieux, les rishis, les Gandharvas, les
hommes sanctifiés par la pénitence; et, quoique, destructeur des
sacrifices, lacérateur des Saintes Ecritures, ennemi des brahmes,
dévorateur des hommes, cette faveur incomparable sauve de la
mort Rávana le triste fléau des mondes. Il ose attaquer les rois,
que défendant les chars de guerre, que remparent les élephants:
d'autres blessés et mis en fuite, sont dissipés ça et là devant lui. Il
a dévoré des saints, il a dévoré même une foule d'apsaras. Sans
cesse, dans son délire, il s'amuse à tourmenter les sept mondes.
Comme on vient de nous apprendre qu' il n'a point daigné parler
d'eux ce jour, que lui fut donnée cette faveur, dont il abuse, entre
dans un corps humain, ô toi, qui peux briser tes ennemis, et jette
sans vie à tes pieds, roi puissant des treize Dieux, ce Rávana su-
perbe, d'une force épouvantable, d'un orgueil immense, l'ennemi
de tous les ascètes, ce ver, qui les ronge, cette cause de leurs
Ici, dans le premier tome du saint Râmâyana, Finit le quatorz-
ième chapitre, nommé: UN EXPÉDIENT POUR TUER RÁVANA.
of Ráma and his rescued queen to Ayodhyá and his consecration
and coronation in the capital of his forefathers. Even if the
The Ramayana
story were not complete, the conclusion of the last Canto of the
sixth Book, evidently the work of a later hand than Válmíki's,
which speaks of Ráma's glorious and happy reign and promises
blessings to those who read and hear the Rámáyan, would be
sufficient to show that, when these verses were added, the poem
was considered to be finished. The Uttarakáṇḍa or Last Book
is merely an appendix or a supplement and relates only events
antecedent and subsequent to those described in the original po-
em. Indian scholars however, led by reverential love of tradition,
unanimously ascribe this Last Book to Válmíki, and regard it as
part of the Rámáyan.
Signor Gorresio has published an excellent translation of the
Uttarakáṇḍa, in Italian prose, from the recension current in Ben-
gal;1030and Mr. Muir has epitomized a portion of the book in the
Appendix to the Fourth Part of his Sanskrit Texts (1862). From
these scholars I borrow freely in the following pages, and give
them my hearty thanks for saving me much wearisome labour.
“After Ráma had returned to Ayodhyá and taken possession
of the throne, the rishis [saints] assembled to greet him, and
1030The Academy, Vol. III., No 43, contains an able and interesting notice
of this work from the pen of the Professor of Sanskrit in the University of
Cambridge: “The Uttarakáṇḍa,” Mr. Cowell remarks, “bears the same relation
totheRámáyaṇaastheCyclicpoemstotheIliad. JustastheCypriaofStasinus,
the Æthiopis of Arctinus, and the little Iliad of Lesches completed the story of
the Iliad, and not only added the series of events which preceded and followed
it, but also founded episodes of their own on isolated allusions in Homer, so
the Uttarakáṇḍa is intended to complete the Rámáyaṇa, and at the same time
to supplement it by intervening episodes to explain casual allusions or isolated
incidents which occur in it. Thus the early history of the giant Rávaṇa and his
family fills nearly forty Chapters, and we have a full account of his wars with
the gods and his conquest of Lanká, which all happened long before the action
of the poem commences, just as the Cypria narrated the birth and early history
of Helen, and the two expeditions of the Greeks against Troy; and the latter
chapters continue the history of the hero Ráma after his triumphant return to his
paternal kingdom, and the poem closes with his death and that of his brothers,
and the founding by their descendants of various kingdoms in different parts
of India.”
Agastya, in answer to his questions recounted many particulars
regarding his old enemies. In the Krita Yuga (or Golden Age)
the austere and pious Brahman rishi Pulastya, a son of Brahmá,
being teased with the visits of different damsels, proclaimed that
any one of them whom he again saw near his hermitage should
become pregnant. This had not been heard by the daughter of
the royal rishi Triṇavindu, who one day came into Pulastya's
neighbourhood, and her pregnancy was the result (Sect. 2, vv.
14 ff.). After her return home, her father, seeing her condition,
took her to Pulastya, who accepted her as his wife, and she bore
a son who received the name of Viśravas. This son was, like his
father, an austere and religious sage. He married the daughter of
the muni Bharadvája, who bore him a son to whom Brahmá gave
the name of Vaiśravaṇ-Kuvera (Sect. 3, vv. 1 ff.). He performed
as a boon that he should be one of the guardians of the world
(along with Indra, Varuṇa, and Yáma) and the god of riches. He
afterwards consulted his father Viśravas about an abode, and at
his suggestion took possession of the city of Lanká, which had
formerly been built by Viśvakarmán for the Rákshasas, but had
been abandoned by them through fear of Vishṇu, and was at that
time unoccupied. Ráma then (Sect. 4) says he is surprised to hear
that Lanká had formerly belonged to the Rákshasas, as he had
always understood that they were the descendants of Pulastya,
and now he learns that they had also another origin. He therefore
asks who was their ancestor, and what fault they had committed
thattheywerechasedawaybyVishṇu. Agastyarepliesthatwhen
Brahmá created the waters, he formed certain beings,—some of
whom received the name of Rákshasas,—to guard them. The
first Rákshasas kings were Heti and Praheti. Heti married a sister
of Kála (Time). She bore him a son Vidyutkeśa, who in his turn
took for his wife Lankatanka[t.]á, the daughter of Sandhyá (V.
21). She bore him a son Sukeśa, whom she abandoned, but he
was seen by Śiva as he was passing by with his wife Párvatí,
The Ramayana
who made the child as old as his mother, and immortal, and
gave him a celestial city. Sukeśa married a Gandharví called
Devavatíwhoborethreesons, Mályavat, SumáliandMáli. These
sons practised intense austerities, when Brahmá appeared and
conferred on them invincibility and long life. They then harassed
the gods. Viśvakarmá gave them a city, Lanká, on the mountain
Trikúṭa, on the shore of
the southern ocean, which he had
built at the command of Indra.… The three Rákshasa, Mályavat
and his two brothers, then began to oppress the gods, rishis,
etc.; who (Sect. 6, v. 1 ff.) in consequence resort for aid to
Mahádeva, who having regard to his protégé Sukeśa the father of
Mályavat, says that he cannot kill the Rákshasas, but advises the
suppliants to go to Vishṇu, which they do, and receive from him
a promise that he will destroy their enemies. The three Rákshasa
kings, hearing of this, consult together, and proceed to heaven
to attack the gods. Vishṇu prepares to meet them. The battle
is described in the seventh section. The Rákshasas are defeated
by Vishṇu with great slaughter, and driven back to Lanká, one
of their leaders, Máli, being slain. Mályavat remonstrates with
Vishṇu, who was assaulting the rear of the fugitives, for his
unwarrior-like conduct, and wishes to renew the combat (Sect.
8, v. 3 ff.). Vishṇu replies that he must fulfil his promise to
the gods by slaying the Rákshasas, and that he would destroy
them even if they fled to Pátála. These Rákshasas, Agastya says,
were more powerful than Rávaṇa, and, could only be destroyed
by Náráyaṇa, i.e. by Ráma himself, the eternal, indestructible
god. Sumáli with his family lived for along time in Pátála, while
Kuvera dwelt in Lanká. In section 9 it is related that Sumáli once
happened to visit the earth, when he observed Kuvera going in
his chariot to see his father Viśravas. This leads him to consider
how he might restore his own fortunes. He consequently desires
his daughter Kaikasí to go and woo Viśravas, who receives her
graciously. She becomes the mother of the dreadful Rávaṇa,
of the huge Kumbhakarṇa, of Śúrpaṇakhá, and of the righteous
Vibhishaṇa, who was the last son. These children grow up in the
forest. Kumbhakarṇa goes about eating rishis. Kuvera comes to
visit his father, when Kaikasí takes occasion to urge her son Rá-
vaṇa to strive to become like his brother (Kuvera) in splendour.
This Rávaṇa promises to do. He then goes to the hermitage of
Gokarna with his brothers to perform austerity. In section 10
their austere observances are described: after a thousand years'
penance Rávaṇa throws his head into the fire. He repeats this
oblation nine times after equal intervals, and is about to do it the
tenth time, when Brahmá appears, and offers a boon. Rávaṇa
asks immortality, but is refused. He then asks that he may be
indestructible by all creatures more powerful than men; which
boon is accorded by Brahmá together with the recovery of all the
heads he had sacrificed and the power of assuming any shape
he pleased. Vibhishaṇa asks as his boon that even amid the
greatest calamities he may think only of righteousness, and that
the weapon of Brahmá may appear to him unlearnt, etc. The god
grants his request, and adds the gift of immortality. When Brah-
má is about to offer a boon to Kumbhakarṇa, the gods interpose,
as, they say, he had eaten seven Apsarases and ten followers of
Indra, besides rishis and men; and beg that under the guise of a
boon stupefaction may be inflicted on him. Brahmá thinks on
Sarasvatí, who arrives and, by Brahmá's command, enters into
Kumbhakarṇa's mouth that she may speak for him. Under this
influence he asks that he may receive the boon of sleeping for
many years, which is granted. When however Sarasvatí has left
him, and he recovers his own consciousness, he perceives that he
has been deluded. Kuvera by his father's advice, gives up the city
of Lanká to Rávaṇ.”1031Rávaṇa marries (Sect. 12) Mandodarí
the beautiful daughter of the Asur Maya whose name has several
times occurred in the Rámáyan as that of an artist of wonderful
skill. She bears a son Meghanáda or the Roaring Cloud who was
1031MUIR{FNS, Sanskrit Texts, Part IV., pp. 414 ff.
The Ramayana
afterwards named Indrajít from his victory over the sovereign
of the skies. The conquest of Kuvera, and the acquisition of
the magic self-moving chariot which has done much service in
the Rámáyan, form the subject of sections XIII., XIV. and XV.
“The rather pretty story of Vedavatí is related in the seventeenth
section, as follows: Rávaṇa in the course of his progress through
the world, comes to the forest on the Himálaya, where he sees
a damsel of brilliant beauty, but in ascetic garb, of whom he
straightwaybecomesenamoured. Hetellsherthatsuchanaustere
life is unsuited to her youth and attractions, and asks who she is
and why she is leading an ascetic existence. She answers that she
is called Vedavatí, and is the vocal daughter of Vṛihaspati's son,
the rishi Kuśadhwaja, sprung from him during his constant study
of the Veda. The gods, gandharvas, etc., she says, wished that
she should choose a husband, but her father would give her to no
one else than to Vishṇu, the lord of the world, whom he desired
for his son-in-law. Vedavatí then proceeds: ‘In order that I may
fulfil this desire of my father in respect of Náráyaṇa, I wed him
with my heart. Having entered into this engagement I practise
great austerity. Náráyaṇa and no other than he, Purushottama, is
my husband. From the desire of obtaining him, I resort to this
severe observance.’ Rávaṇa's passion is not in the least dimin-
ished by this explanation and he urges that it is the old alone
who should seek to become distinguished by accumulating merit
through austerity, prays that she who is so young and beautiful
shall become his bride; and boasts that he is superior to Vishṇu.
She rejoins that no one but he would thus contemn that deity.
On receiving this reply he touches the hair of her head with the
tip of his finger. She is greatly incensed, and forthwith cuts off
her hair and tells him that as he has so insulted her, she cannot
continue to live, but will enter into the fire before his eyes. She
goes on ‘Since I have been insulted in the forest by thee who
art wicked-hearted, I shall be born again for thy destruction.
For a man of evil desire cannot be slain by a woman; and the
merit of my austerity would be lost if I were to launch a curse
against thee. But if I have performed or bestowed or sacrificed
aught may I be born the virtuous daughter, not produced from
the womb, of a righteous man.’ Having thus spoken she entered
the blazing fire. Then a shower of celestial flowers fell (from
every part of the sky). It is she, lord, who, having been Vedavatí
in the Krita age, has been born (in the Treta age) as the daughter
of the king of the Janakas, and (has become) thy [Ráma's] bride;
for thou art the eternal Vishṇu. The mountain-like enemy who
was [virtually] destroyed before by her wrath, has now been slain
by her having recourse to thy superhuman energy.” On this the
commentator remarks: “By this it is signified that Sítá was the
principal cause of Rávaṇa's death; but the function of destroying
him is ascribed to Ráma.” On the words, “thou art Vishṇu,” in
the preceding verse the same commentator remarks: “By this it
is clearly affirmed that Sítá was Lakshmí.” This is what Paráśara
says: “In the god's life as Ráma, she became Sítá, and in his birth
as Krishṇa [she became] Rukminí.”1032
In the following section (XVIII.) “Rávaṇa is described as
violently interrupting a sacrifice which is being performed by
king Marutta, and the assembled gods in terror assume differ-
ent shapes to escape; Indra becomes a peacock, Yáma a crow,
Kuvera a lizard, and Varuṇa a swan; and each deity bestows a
boon on the animal he had chosen. The peacock's tail recalls
Indra's thousand eyes; the swan's colour becomes white, like the
foam of the ocean (Varuṇa being its lord); the lizard obtains a
golden colour; and the crow is never to die except when killed
by a violent death, and the dead are to enjoy the funeral oblations
when they have been devoured by the crows.”1033
Rávaṇ then attacks Arjuna or Kárttavírya the mighty king
of Máhishmati on the banks of the Narmadá, and is defeated,
captured and imprisoned by Arjuna. At the intercession of Pu-
1032MUIR{FNS, Sanskrit Texts, Part IV., 391, 392.
1033See Academy, III., 43.
The Ramayana
lastya (Sect. XXII.) he is released from his bonds. He then
visits Kishkindhá where he enters into alliance with Báli the
King of the Vánars: “We will have all things in common,” says
Rávaṇ, “dames, sons, cities and kingdoms, food, vesture, and
all delights.” His next exploit is the invasion of the kingdom of
departed spirits and his terrific battle with the sovereign Yáma.
The poet in his description of these regions with the detested
river with waves of blood, the dire lamentations, the cries for a
drop of water, the devouring worm, all the tortures of the guilty
and the somewhat insipid pleasures of the just, reminds one of
the scenes in the under world so vividly described by Homer,
Virgil, and Dante. Yáma is defeated (Sect. XXVI.) by the giant,
not so much by his superior power as because at the request of
Brahmá Yáma refrains from smiting with his deadly weapon the
Rákshas enemy to whom that God had once given the promise
that preserved him. In the twenty-seventh section Rávaṇ goes
“under the earth into Pátála the treasure-house of the waters
inhabited by swarms of serpents and Daityas, and well defended
by Varuṇ.” He subdues Bhogavatí the city ruled by Vásuki and
reduces the Nágas or serpents to subjection. He penetrates even
to the imperial seat of Varuṇ. The God himself is absent, but his
sons come forth and do battle with the invader. The giant is vic-
torious and departs triumphant. The twenty-eighth section gives
the details of a terrific battle between Rávaṇ and Mándhátá King
of Ayodhyá, a distinguished ancestor of Ráma. Supernatural
weapons are employed on both sides and the issue of the conflict
is long doubtful. But at last Mándhátá prepares to use the mighty
weapon “acquired by severe austerities through the grace and
favour of Rudra.” The giant would inevitably have been slain.
But two pre-eminent Munis Pulastya and Gálava beheld the fight
through the power given by contemplation, and with words of
exhortation they parted King Mándhátá and the sovereign of the
Rákshases. Rávaṇ at last (Sect. XXXII.) returns homeward car-
rying with him in his car Pushpak the virgin daughters of kings,
of Rishis, of Daityas, and Gandharvas whom he has seized upon
his way. The thirty-sixth section describes a battle with Indra,
in which the victorious Meghanáda son of the giant, makes the
King of the Gods his prisoner, binds him with his magic art, and
carries him away (Sect. XXVII.) in triumph to Lanká. Brahmá
intercedes (Sect. XXXVIII.) and Indrajít releases his prisoner on
obtaining inreturn theboon thatsacrifice tothe Lordof Fireshall
always make him invincible in the coming battle. In sections
XXXIX., XL, “we have a legend related to Ráma by the sage
Agastya to account for the stupendous strength of the monkey
Hanumán, as it had been described in the Rámáyaṇa. Rama
naturally wonders (as perhaps many readers of the Rámáyaṇa
have done since) why a monkey of such marvellous power and
prowess had not easily overcome Báli and secured the throne for
hisfriendSugríva. AgastyarepliesthatHanumánwasatthattime
under a curse from a Rishi, and consequently was not conscious
of his own might.”1034The whole story of the marvellous Vánar
is here given at length, but nothing else of importance is added
to the tale already given in the Rámáyaṇa. The Rishis or saints
then (Sect. XL.) return to their celestial seats, and the Vánars,
Rákshases and bears also (Sect. XLIII.) take their departure. The
chariot Pushpak is restored to its original owner Kuvera, as has
already been related in the Rámáyaṇ.
The story of Ráma and Sítá is then continued, and we meet
with matter of more human interest. The winter is past and the
pleasant spring-time is come, and Ráma and Sítá sit together in
the shade of the Aśoka trees happy as Indra and Śachí when they
drink in Paradise the nectar of the Gods. “Tell me, my beloved,”
says Ráma, “for thou wilt soon be a mother, hast thou a wish
in thy heart for me to gratify?” And Sítá smiles and answers: “I
long, O son of Raghu, to visit the pure and holy hermitages on
the banks of the Ganges and to venerate the feet of the saints
1034Academy, Vol. III., No. 43.
The Ramayana
who there perform their rigid austerities and live on roots and
berries. This is my chief desire, to stand within the hermits'
grove were it but for a single day.” And Ráma said: “Let not the
thought trouble thee: thou shalt go to the grove of the ascetics.”
But slanderous tongues have been busy in Ayodhyá, and Sítá
has not been spared. Ráma hears that the people are lamenting
his blind folly in taking back to his bosom the wife who was
so long a captive in the palace of Rávaṇ. Ráma well knows her
spotless purity in thought, word, and deed, and her perfect love
of him; but he cannot endure the mockery and the shame and
resolves to abandon his unsuspecting wife. He orders the sad but
still obedient Lakshmaṇ to convey her to the hermitage which
she wishes to visit and to leave her there, for he will see her face
again no more. They arrive at the hermitage, and Lakshmaṇ tells
her all. She falls fainting on the ground, and when she recovers
her consciousness sheds some natural tears and bewails her cruel
and undeserved lot. But she resolves to live for the sake of Ráma
and her unborn son, and she sends by Lakshmaṇ a dignified
message to the husband who has forsaken her: “I grieve not for
myself,” she says “because I have been abandoned on account
of what the people say, and not for any evil that I have done.
The husband is the God of the wife, the husband is her lord and
guide; and what seems good unto him she should do even at the
cost of her life.”
Sítá is honourably received by the saint Válmíki himself, and
the holy women of the hermitage are charged to entertain and
serve her. In this calm retreat she gives birth to two boys who
receive the names of Kuśa and Lava. They are carefully brought
up and are taught by Válmíki himself to recite the Rámáyaṇ.
The years pass by: and Ráma at length determines to celebrate
the Aśvamedha or Sacrifice of the Steed. Válmíki, with his two
young pupils, attends the ceremony, and the unknown princes
recite before the delighted father the poem which recounts his
deeds. Ráma inquires into their history and recognizes them
as his sons. Sítá is invited to return and solemnly affirm her
innocence before the great assembly.
“But Sítá's heart was too full; this second ordeal was beyond
even her power to submit to, and the poet rose above the ordinary
Hindu level of women when he ventured to paint her conscious
purity as rebelling: ‘Beholding all the spectators, and clothed in
red garments, Sítá clasping her hands and bending low her face,
spoke thus in a voice choked with tears: “as I, even in mind,
have never thought of any other than Ráma, so may Mádhaví
the goddess of Earth, grant me a hiding-place.” As Sítá made
this oath, lo! a marvel appeared. Suddenly cleaving the earth, a
divine throne of marvellous beauty rose up, borne by resplendent
dragons on their heads: and seated on it, the goddess of Earth,
raising Sítá with her arm, said to her, “Welcome to thee!” and
placed her by her side. And as the queen, seated on the throne,
slowly descended to Hades, a continuous shower of flowers fell
down from heaven on her head.’1035”
“Both the great Hindu epics thus end in disappointment and
sorrow. In the Mahábhárata the five victorious brothers abandon
the hardly won throne to die one by one in a forlorn pilgrimage
to the Himálaya; and in the same way Ráma only regains his
wife, after all his toils, to lose her. It is the same in the later
Homeric cycle—the heroes of the Iliad perish by ill-fated deaths.
And even Ulysses, after his return to Ithaca, sets sail again to
Thesprotia, and finally falls by the hand of his own son. But in
India and Greece alike this is an afterthought of a self-conscious
time, which has been subsequently added to cast a gloom on the
strong cheerfulness of the heroic age.”1036
“The termination of Ráma's terrestrial career is thus told in
Sections 116 ff. of the Uttarakáṇda. Time, in the form of an
ascetic, comes to his palace gate, and asks, as the messenger
1035E. B. Cowell. Academy, No. 43. The story of Sítá's banishment will be
found roughly translated from the Raghuvaṇśa, in the Additional Notes.
1036E. B. Cowell. Academy, Vol, III, No. 43.
The Ramayana
of the great rishi (Brahmá) to see Ráma. He is admitted and
received with honour, but says, when he is asked what he has
to communicate, that his message must be delivered in private,
and that any one who witnesses the interview is to lose his life.
Ráma informs Lakshmaṇ of all this, and desires him to stand
outside. Time then tells Ráma that he has been sent by Brahmá,
to say that when he (Ráma, i.e. Vishṇu) after destroying the
worlds was sleeping on the ocean, he had formed him (Brahmá)
from the lotus springing from his navel, and committed to him
the work of creation; that he (Brahmá) had then entreated Ráma
to assume the function of Preserver, and that the latter had in
consequence become Vishṇu, being born as the son of Aditi,
and had determined to deliver mankind by destroying Rávaṇa,
and to live on earth ten thousand and ten hundred years; that
period, adds Time, was now on the eve of expiration, and Ráma
could either at his pleasure prolong his stay on earth, or ascend
to heaven and rule over the gods. Ráma replies, that he had been
born for the good of the three worlds, and would now return to
the place whence he had come, as it was his function to fulfil the
purposes of the gods. While they are speaking the irritable rishi
Durvásas comes, and insists on seeing Ráma immediately, under
a threat, if refused, of cursing Ráma and all his family.”
Lakshmaṇ, preferring to save his kinsman, though knowing
that his own death must be the consequence of interrupting the
interview of Ráma with Time, enters the palace and reports the
rishi's message to Ráma. Ráma comes out, and when Durvásas
has got the food he wished, and departed, Ráma reflects with
should die. Lakshmaṇ however exhorts Ráma not to grieve, but
to abandon him and not break his own promise. The counsellors
concurring in this advice, Ráma abandons Lakshmaṇ, who goes
to the river Sarayú, suppresses all his senses, and is conveyed
bodily by Indra to heaven. The gods are delighted by the arrival
of the fourth part of Vishṇu. Ráma then resolves to install
Bharata as his successor and retire to the forest and follow Lak-
shmaṇ. Bharata however refuses the succession, and determines
to accompany his brother. Ráma's subjects are filled with grief,
and say they also will follow him wherever he goes. Messengers
are sent to Śatrughna, the other brother, and he also resolves
to accompany Ráma; who at length sets out in procession from
his capital with all the ceremonial appropriate to the “great
departure,” silent, indifferent to external objects, joyless, with
Śrí on his right, the goddess Earth on his left, Energy in front,
attended by all his weapons in human shapes, by the Vedas in the
forms of Bráhmans, by the Gáyatrí, the Omkára, the Vashaṭkára,
by rishis, by his women, female slaves, eunuchs, and servants.
Bharata with his family, and Śatrughna, follow together with
Bráhmans bearing the sacred fire, and the whole of the people
of the country, and even with animals, etc., etc. Ráma, with all
these attendants, comes to the banks of the Sarayú. Brahmá, with
all the gods and innumerable celestial cars, now appears, and all
the sky is refulgent with the divine splendour. Pure and fragrant
breezes blow, a shower of flowers falls. Ráma enters the waters
of the Sarayú; and Brahmá utters a voice from the sky, saying:
“Approach, Vishṇu; Rághava, thouhasthappilyarrived, withthy
godlike brothers. Enter thine own body as Vishṇu or the eternal
ether. For thou art the abode of the worlds: no one comprehends
thee, the inconceivable and imperishable, except the large-eyed
Máyá thy primeval spouse.” Hearing these words, Ráma enters
theglory ofVishṇuwith hisbodyand hisfollowers. Hethen asks
Brahmá to find an abode for the people who had accompanied
him from devotion to his person, and Brahmá appoints them a
celestial residence accordingly.1037
1037MUIR{FNS, Sanskrit Texts, Part IV., Appendix.
Queen Fortune.
“A curious festival is celebrated in honour of this divinity (Lak-
shmî) on the fifth lunar day of the light half of the month Mâgha
(February), when she is identified with Saraswatí the consort of
Brahmá, and the goddess of learning. In his treatise on festivals,
a great modern authority, Raghunandana, mentions, on the faith
of a work called Samvatsara-sandipa, that Lakshmî is to be
worshipped in the forenoon of that day with flowers, perfumes,
rice, and water; that due honour is to be paid to inkstand and
writing-reed, and no writing to be done. Wilson, in his essay
on the Religious Festivals of the Hindus (works, vol. ii, p. 188.
ff.) adds that on the morning of the 2nd February, the whole
of the pens and inkstands, and the books, if not too numerous
and bulky, are collected, the pens or reeds cleaned, the inkstands
scoured, and the books wrapped up in new cloth, are arranged
upon a platform, or a sheet, and strewn over with flowers and
blades of young barley, and that no flowers except white are
to be offered. After performing the necessary rites, … all the
members of the family assemble and make their prostrations; the
books, the pens, and ink having an entire holiday; and should any
to the divinity of scholarship, it is done with chalk or charcoal
upon a black or white board.”
“The Hindu Jove or Jupiter Tonans, chief of the secondary
deities. He presides over swarga or paradise, and is more partic-
ularly the god of the atmosphere and winds. He is also regent of
the east quarter of the sky. As chief of the deities he is called
Devapati, Devadeva, Surapati, etc.; as lord of the atmosphere
Divaspati; as lord of the eight Vasus or demigods, Fire, etc.,
Vásava; as breaking cities into fragments, Purandara, Puranda;
as lord of a hundred sacrifices (the performance of a hundred Aś-
vamedhas elevating the sacrificer to the rank of Indra) Śatakratu,
Śatamakha; as having a thousand eyes, Sahasráksha; as husband
of Śachí, Śachípati. His wife is called Śachí, Indráṇí, Sakráṇí,
Maghoni, Indraśakti, Pulomajá, and Paulomí. His son is Jayanta.
His pleasure garden or elysium is Nandana; his city, Amarávatí;
his palace, Vaijayanta; his horse, Uchchaihśravas, his elephant,
Airávata; his charioteer, Mátali.”
PROFESSOR M. WILLIAMS'S English-Sanskrit Dictionary. Indra.
“The second person of the Hindu triad, and the most celebrated
and popular of all the Indian deities. He is the personification
of the preserving power, and became incarnate in nine different
forms, for the preservation of mankind in various emergencies.
Before the creation of the universe, and after its temporary an-
nihilation, he is supposed to sleep on the waters, floating on the
serpent Śesha, and is then identified with Náráyaṇa. Brahmá,
the creator, is fabled to spring at that time from a lotus which
grows from his navel, whilst thus asleep.… His ten avatárs or
incarnations are:
The Ramayana
“1. The Matsya, or fish. In this avatár Vishṇu descended in
the form of a fish to save the pious king Satyavrata, who with
the seven Rishis and their wives had taken refuge in the ark to
escape the deluge which then destroyed the earth. 2, The Kúrma,
or Tortoise. In this he descended in the form of a tortoise, for
the purpose of restoring to man some of the comforts lost during
the flood. To this end he stationed himself at the bottom of the
ocean, and allowed the point of the great mountain Mandara to
be placed upon his back, which served as a hard axis, whereon
the gods and demons, with the serpent Vásuki twisted round
the mountain for a rope, churned the waters for the recovery of
the amrita or nectar, and fourteen other sacred things. 3. The
Varáha, or Boar. In this he descended in the form of a boar to
rescue the earth from the power of a demon called ‘golden-eyed,’
Hiraṇyáksha. This demon had seized on the earth and carried
it with him into the depths of the ocean. Vishṇu dived into the
abyss, and after a contest of a thousand years slew the monster.
4. The Narasinha, or Man-lion. In this monstrous shape of a
creature half-man, half-lion, Vishṇu delivered the earth from the
tyranny of an insolent demon called Hiraṇyakaśipu. 5. Vámana,
or Dwarf. This avatár happened in the second age of the Hindús
or Tretáyug, the four preceding are said to have occurred in the
first or Satyayug; the object of this avatár was to trick Bali out
of the dominion of the three worlds. Assuming the form of a
wretched dwarf he appeared before the king and asked, as a
boon, as much land as he could pace in three steps. This was
granted; and Vishṇu immediately expanding himself till he filled
the world, deprived Bali at two steps of heaven and earth, but in
consideration of some merit, left Pátála still in his dominion. 6.
Paraśuráma. 7. Rámchandra. 8. Krishṇa, or according to some
Balaráma. 9. Buddha. In this avatár Vishṇu descended in the
form of a sage for the purpose of making some reform in the
religion of the Brahmins, and especially to reclaim them from
their proneness to animal sacrifice. Many of the Hindús will not
allow this to have been an incarnation of their favourite god. 10.
Kalki, or White Horse. This is yet to come. Vishṇu mounted on
a white horse, with a drawn scimitar, blazing like a comet, will,
according to prophecy, end this present age, viz. the fourth or
Kaliyug, by destroying the world, and then renovating creation
by an age of purity.”
“A celebrated Hindú God, the Destroyer of creation, and there-
fore the most formidable of the Hindú Triad. He also personifies
reproduction, since the Hindú philosophy excludes the idea of
total annihilation without subsequent regeneration. Hence he is
sometimes confounded with Brahmá, the creator or first person
of the Triad. He is the particular God of the Tántrikas, or fol-
lowers of the books called Tantras. His worshippers are termed
Śaivas, and although not so numerous as the Vaishṇavas, exalt
their god to the highest place in the heavens, and combine in him
many of the attributes which properly belong to the other deities.
According to them Śiva is Time, Justice, Fire, Water, the Sun,
the Destroyer and Creator. As presiding over generation, his
type is the Linga, or Phallus, the origin probably of the Phallic
emblem of Egypt and Greece. As the God of generation and
justice, which latter character he shares with the god Yama, he is
represented riding a white bull. His own colour, as well as that
of the bull, is generally white, referring probably to the unsullied
purity of Justice.
His throat is dark-blue; his hair of a light
reddish colour, and thickly matted together, and gathered above
hisheadlikethehairofanascetic. Heissometimesseenwithtwo
hands, sometimes with four, eight, or ten, and with five faces. He
has three eyes, one being in the centre of his forehead, pointing
The Ramayana
up and down. These are said to denote his view of the three
divisions of time, past, present, and future. He holds a trident
in his hand to denote, as some say, his relationship to water,
or according to others, to show that the three great attributes of
Creator, Destroyer, and Regenerator are combined in him. His
loins are enveloped in a tiger's skin. In his character of Time,
he not only presides over its extinction, but also its astronomical
regulation. A crescent or half-moon on his forehead indicates the
measure of time by the phases of the moon; a serpent forms one
of his necklaces to denote the measure of time by years, and a
second necklace of human skulls marks the lapse and revolution
of ages, and the extinction and succession of the generations
of mankind. He is often represented as entirely covered with
serpents, which are the emblems of immortality. They are bound
in his hair, round his neck, wrists, waist, arms and legs; they
serve as rings for his fingers, and earrings for his ears, and are
his constant companions. Śiva has more than a thousand names
which are detailed at length in the sixty-ninth chapter of the Śiva
“Originally these deities seem to have been personifications of
the vapours which are attracted by the sun, and form into mist
or clouds: their character may be thus interpreted in the few
hymns of the Rigveda where mention is made of them. At
a subsequent period when the Gandharva of the Rigveda who
personifies there especially the Fire of the Sun, expanded into the
Fire of Lightning, the rays of the moon and other attributes of the
elementary life of heaven as well as into pious acts referring to
it, the Apsarasas become divinities which represent phenomena
or objects both of a physical and ethical kind closely associated
Vishnu's Incarnation As Ráma.
with that life; thus in the Yajurveda Sunbeams are called the
Apsarasas associated with the Gandharva who is the Sun; Plants
are termed the Apsarasas connected with the Gandharva Fire:
ConstellationsaretheApsarasasoftheGandharvaMoon: Waters
the Apsarasas of the Gandharva Wind, etc. etc.… In the last
Mythological epoch when the Gandharvas have saved from their
elementary nature merely so much as to be musicians in the
paradise of Indra, the Apsarasas appear among other subordinate
deities which share in the merry life of Indra's heaven, as the
wives of the Gandharvas, but more especially as wives of a
licentious sort, and they are promised therefore, too, as a reward
to heroes fallen inbattle when they are received in the paradiseof
Indra; and while, in the Rigveda, they assist Soma to pour down
his floods, they descend in the epic literature on earth merely
to shake the virtue of penitent Sages and to deprive them of the
power they would otherwise have acquired through unbroken
austerities.”—GOLDSTÜCKER'S Sanskrit Dictionary.
Vishnu's Incarnation As Ráma.
“Here is described one of the avatárs, descents or manifestations
of Vishṇu in a visible form. The word avatár signifies literally
descent. The avatár which is here spoken of, that in which,
according to Indian traditions, Vishṇu descended and appeared
upon earth in the corporeal form of Ráma, the hero of the
Rámáyana, is the seventh in the series of Indian avatárs. Much
has been said before now of these avatárs, and through deficient
knowledge of the ideas and doctrines of India, they have been
compared to the sublime dogma of the Christian Incarnation.
This is one of the grossest errors that ignorance of the ideas
and beliefs of a people has produced. Between the avatárs of
India and the Christian Incarnation there is such an immensity
The Ramayana
of difference that it is impossible to find any reasonable analogy
that can approximate them. The idea of the avatárs is intimately
united with that of the Trimúrti; the bond of connection be-
tween these two ideas is an essential notion common to both,
the notion of Vishṇu. What is the Trimúrti? I have already said
that it is composed of three Gods, Brahmá (masculine), Vishṇu
the God of avatárs, and Śiva. These three Gods, who when
reduced to their primitive and most simple expression are but
three cosmogonical personifications, three powers or forces of
nature, these Gods, I say, are here found, according to Indian
doctrines, entirely external to the true God of India, or Brahma
in the neuter gender. Brahma is alone, unchangeable in the midst
of creation: all emanates from him, he comprehends all, but he
remains extraneous to all: he is Being and the negation of beings.
Brahma is never worshipped; the indeterminate Being is never
invoked; he is inaccessible to the prayers as the actions of man;
humanity, as well as nature, is extraneous to him. External to
Brahma rises the Trimúrti, that is to say, Brahmá (masculine)
the power which creates, Vishṇu the power which preserves,
and Śiva the power which destroys: theogony here commences
at the same time with cosmogony. The three divinities of the
Trimúrti govern the phenomena of the universe and influence
all nature. The real God of India is by himself without power;
real efficacious power is attributed only to three divinities who
exist externally to him. Brahmá, Vishṇu, and Śiva, possessed
of qualities in part contradictory and attributes that are mutually
exclusive, have no other accord or harmony than that which re-
sults from the power of things itself, and which is found external
to their own thoughts. Such is the Indian Trimúrti. What an
of Christianity! Here there is only one God, who created all,
provides for all, governs all. He exists in three Persons equal
to one another, and intimately united in one only infinite and
eternal substance. The Father represents the eternal thought and
Vishnu's Incarnation As Ráma.
the power which created, the Son infinite love, the Holy Spirit
universal sanctification. This one and triune God completes by
omnipotent power the great work of creation which, when it has
come forth from His hands, proceeds in obedience to the laws
whichHehasgivenit, governedwithcertainorderbyHisinfinite
Christian Trinity is found again between the avatárs of Vishṇu
and the Incarnation of Christ. The avatár was effected altogether
externally to the Being who is in India regarded as the true
God. The manifestation of one essentially cosmogonical divinity
wrought for the most part only material and cosmogonical prodi-
gies. At one time it takes the form of the gigantic tortoise which
sustains Mount Mandar from sinking in the ocean; at another of
the fish which raises the lost Veda from the bottom of the sea,
and saves mankind from the waters. When these avatárs are not
cosmogonical they consist in some protection accorded to men
or Gods, a protection which is neither universal nor permanent.
The very manner in which the avatár is effected corresponds
to its material nature, for instance the mysterious vase and the
magic liquor by means of which the avatár here spoken of takes
place. What are the forms which Vishṇu takes in his descents?
They are the simple forms of life; he becomes a tortoise, a boar,
a fish, but he is not obliged to take the form of intelligence
and liberty, that is to say, the form of man. In the avatár of
Vishṇu is discovered the inpress of pantheistic ideas which have
always more or less prevailed in India. Does the avatár produce
a permanent and definitive result in the world? By no means. It
is renewed at every catastrophe either of nature or man, and its
effects are only transitory.… To sum up then, the Indian avatár
is effected externally to the true God of India, to Brahma; it has
nor decisive; it is accomplished by means of strange prodigies
and magic transformations; it may assume promiscuously all the
The Ramayana
forms of life; it may be repeated indefinitely. Now let the whole
of this Indian idea taken from primitive tradition be compared
with the Incarnation of Christ and it will be seen that there is
between the two an irreconcilable difference. According to the
doctrines of Christianity the Everlasting Word, Infinite Love, the
SonofGod, andequalto Him, assumeda humanbody, andbeing
born as a man accomplished by his divine act the great miracle
of the spiritual redemption of man. His coming had for its sole
object to bring erring and lost humanity back to Him; this work
being accomplished, and the divine union of men with God being
re-established, redemption is complete and remains eternal.
“The superficial study of India produced in the last century
many erroneous ideas, many imaginary and false parallels be-
tween Christianity and the Brahmanical religion. A profounder
knowledge of Indian civilization and religion, and philological
studies enlarged and guided by more certain principles have
dissipated one by one all those errors. The attributes of the Chris-
tian God, which by one of those intellectual errors, which Vico
attributes to the vanity of the learned, had been transferred to
Vishṇu, have by a better inspired philosophy been reclaimed for
Christianity, and the result of the two religions, one immovable
and powerless, the other diffusing itself with all its inherent force
and energy, has shown further that there is a difference, a real
opposition, between the two principles.”—GORRESIO.
Kusa and Lava.
As the story of the banishment of Sítá and the subsequent birth
in Válmíki's hermitage of Kuśa and Lava the rhapsodists of the
Rámáyan, is intimately connected with the account in the intro-
ductory cantos of Válmíki's composition of the poem, I shall, I
trust, be pardoned for extracting it from my rough translation of
Kusa and Lava.
Kálidása's Raghuvaṇśa, parts only of which have been offered to
the public.
“Then, day by day, the husband's hope grew high,
Gazing with love on Sítá's melting eye:
With anxious care he saw her pallid cheek,
And fondly bade her all her wishes speak.
“Once more I fain would see,” the lady cried,
“The sacred groves that rise on Gangá's side,
Where holy grass is ever fresh and green,
And cattle feeding on the rice are seen:
There would I rest awhile, where once I strayed
Linked in sweet friendship to each hermit maid.”
And Ráma smiled upon his wife, and sware,
With many a tender oath, to grant her prayer.
It chanced, one evening, from a lofty seat
He viewed Ayodhyá stretched before his feet:
He looked with pride upon the royal road
Lined with gay shops their glittering stores that showed,
He looked on Sarjú's silver waves, that bore
The light barks flying with the sail and oar;
He saw the gardens near the town that lay,
Filled with glad citizens and boys at play.
Then swelled the monarch's bosom with delight,
And his heart triumphed at the happy sight.
He turned to Bhadra, standing by his side,—
Upon whose secret news the king relied.—
And bade him say what people said and thought
Of all the exploits that his arm had wrought.
The spy was silent, but, when questioned still,
Thus spake, obedient to his master's will:
“For all thy deeds in peace and battle done
The people praise thee, King, except for one:
This only act of all thy life they blame,—
Thy welcome home of her, thy ravished dame.”
The Ramayana
Like iron yielding to the iron's blow,
Sank Ráma, smitten by those words of woe.
His breast, where love and fear for empire vied,
Swayed, like a rapid swing, from side to side.
Shall he this rumour scorn, which blots his life,
Or banish her, his dear and spotless wife?
But rigid Duty left no choice between
His perilled honour and his darling queen.
Called to his side, his brothers wept to trace
The marks of anguish in his altered face.
No longer bright and glorious as of old,
He thus addressed them when the tale was told:
“Alas! my brothers, that my life should blot
The fame of those the Sun himself begot:
As from the labouring cloud the driven rain
Leaves on the mirror's polished face a stain.
E'en as an elephant who loathes the stake
And the strong chain he has no power to break,
I cannot brook this cry on every side,
That spreads like oil upon the moving tide.
I leave the daughter of Videha's King,
And the fair blossom soon from her to spring,
As erst, obedient to my sire's command,
I left the empire of the sea-girt land.
Good is my queen, and spotless; but the blame
Is hard to bear, the mockery and the shame.
Men blame the pure Moon for the darkened ray,
When the black shadow takes the light away.
And, O my brothers, if ye wish to see
Ráma live long from this reproach set free,
Let not your pity labour to control
The firm sad purpose of his changeless soul.”
Kusa and Lava.
Thus Ráma spake. The sorrowing brothers heard
His stern resolve, without an answering word;
For none among them dared his voice to raise,
That will to question:—and they could not praise.
“Beloved brother,” thus the monarch cried
To his dear Lakshmaṇ, whom he called aside.—
Lakshmaṇ, who knew no will save his alone
Whose hero deeds through all the world were known:—
“My queen has told me that she longs to rove
Beneath the shade of Saint Válmíki's grove:
Now mount thy car, away my lady bear;
Tell all, and leave her in the forest there.”
The car was brought, the gentle lady smiled,
As the glad news her trusting heart beguiled.
She mounted up: Sumantra held the reins;
And forth the coursers bounded o'er the plains.
She saw green fields in all their beauty dressed,
And thanked her husband in her loving breast.
Alas! deluded queen! she little knew
How changed was he whom she believed so true;
How one she worshipped like the Heavenly Tree
Could, in a moment's time, so deadly be.
Her right eye throbbed,—ill-omened sign, to tell
The endless loss of him she loved so well,
And to the lady's saddening heart revealed
The woe that Lakshmaṇ, in his love, concealed.
Pale grew the bloom of her sweet face,—as fade
The lotus blossoms,—by that sign dismayed.
“Oh, may this omen,”—was her silent prayer,—
“No grief to Ráma or his brothers bear!”
The Ramayana
When Lakshmaṇ, faithful to his brother, stood
Prepared to leave her in the distant wood,
The holy Gangá, flowing by the way,
Raised all her hands of waves to bid him stay.
At length with sobs and burning tears that rolled
Down his sad face, the king's command he told;
As when a monstrous cloud, in evil hour,
Rains from its labouring womb a stony shower.
She heard, she swooned, she fell upon the earth,
Fell on that bosom whence she sprang to birth.
As, when the tempest in its fury flies,
Low in the dust the prostrate creeper lies,
So, struck with terror sank she on the ground,
And all her gems, like flowers, lay scattered round.
But Earth, her mother, closed her stony breast,
And, filled with doubt, denied her daughter rest.
She would not think the Chief of Raghu's race
Would thus his own dear guiltless wife disgrace.
Stunned and unconscious, long the lady lay,
And felt no grief, her senses all astray.
But gentle Lakshmaṇ, with a brother's care,
Brought back her sense, and with her sense, despair.
But not her wrongs, her shame, her grief, could wring
One angry word against her lord the King:
Upon herself alone the blame she laid,
For tears and sighs that would not yet be stayed.
To soothe her anguish Lakshmaṇ gently strove;
He showed the path to Saint Válmíki's grove;
And craved her pardon for the share of ill
He wrought, obedient to his brother's will.
“O, long and happy, dearest brother, live!
I have to praise,” she cried, “and not forgive:
To do his will should be thy noblest praise;
As Vishṇu ever Indra's will obeys.
Kusa and Lava.
Return, dear brother: on each royal dame
Bestow a blessing in poor Sítá's name,
And bid them, in their love, kind pity take
Upon her offspring, for the father's sake.
And speak my message in the monarch's ear,
The last last words of mine that he shall hear:
“Say, was it worthy of thy noble race
Thy guiltless queen thus lightly to disgrace?
For idle tales to spurn thy faithful bride,
Whose constant truth the searching fire had tried?
Or may I hope thy soul refused consent,
And but thy voice decreed my banishment?
Hope that no care could turn, no love could stay
The lightning stroke that falls on me to-day?
That sins committed in the life that's fled
Have brought this evil on my guilty head?
Think not I value now my widowed life,
Worthless to her who once was Ráma's wife.
I only live because I hope to see
The dear dear babe that will resemble thee.
And then my task of penance shall be done,
With eyes uplifted to the scorching sun;
So shall the life that is to come restore
Mine own dear husband, to be lost no more.”
And Lakshmaṇ swore her every word to tell,
Then turned to go, and bade the queen farewell.
Alone with all her woes, her piteous cries
Rose like a butchered lamb's that struggling dies.
The reverend sage who from his dwelling came
For sacred grass and wood to feed the flame,
Heard her loud shrieks that rent the echoing wood,
And, quickly following, by the mourner stood.
Before the sage the lady bent her low,
Dried her poor eyes, and strove to calm her woe.
The Ramayana
With blessings on her hopes the blameless man
In silver tones his soothing speech began:
“First of all faithful wives, O Queen, art thou;
And can I fail to mourn thy sorrows now?
Rest in this holy grove, nor harbour fear
Where dwell in safety e'en the timid deer.
Here shall thine offspring safely see the light,
And be partaker of each holy rite.
Here, near the hermits' dwellings, shall thou lave
Thy limbs in Tonse's sin-destroying wave,
And on her isles, by prayer and worship, gain
Sweet peace of mind, and rest from care and pain.
Each hermit maiden with her sweet soft voice,
Shall soothe thy woe, and bid thy heart rejoice:
With fruit and early flowers thy lap shall fill,
And offer grain that springs for us at will.
And here, with labour light, thy task shall be
To water carefully each tender tree,
And learn how sweet a nursing mother's joy
Ere on thy bosom rest thy darling boy.…”
That very night the banished Sítá bare
Two royal children, most divinely fair.…
The saint Válmíki, with a friend's delight,
Graced Sítá's offspring with each holy rite.
Kuśa and Lava—such the names they bore—
Learnt, e'en in childhood, all the Vedas' lore;
And then the bard, their minstrel souls to train,
Taught them to sing his own immortal strain.
And Ráma's deeds her boys so sweetly sang,
That Sítá's breast forgot her bitterest pang.…
Parasuráma, Page 87.
Then Sítá's children, by the saint's command,
Sang the Rámáyan, wandering through the land.
How could the glorious poem fail to gain
Each heart, each ear that listened to the strain!
So sweet each minstrel's voice who sang the praise
Of Ráma deathless in Válmíki's lays.
Ráma himself amid the wondering throng
Marked their fair forms, and loved the noble song,
While, still and weeping, round the nobles stood,
As, on a windless morn, a dewy wood.
On the two minstrels all the people gazed,
Praised their fair looks and marvelled as they praised;
For every eye amid the throng could trace
Ráma's own image in each youthful face.
Then spoke the king himself and bade them say
Who was their teacher, whose the wondrous lay.
Soon as Válmíki, mighty saint, he saw,
He bowed his head in reverential awe.
“These are thy children” cried the saint, “recall
Thine own dear Sítá, pure and true through all.”
“O holy father,” thus the king replied,
“The faithful lady by the fire was tried;
But the foul demon's too successful arts
Raised light suspicions in my people's hearts.
Grant that their breasts may doubt her faith no more,
And thus my Sítá and her sons restore.”
Raghuvaṇśa Cantos XIV, XV.
Parasuráma, Page 87.
The Ramayana
“He cleared the earth thrice seven times of the Kshatriya caste,
and filled with their blood the five large lakes of Samanta, from
which he offered libations to the race of Bhrigu. Offering a
solemn sacrifice to the King of the Gods Paraśuráma presented
the earth to the ministering priests. Having given the earth to
dra mountain, where he still resides; and in this manner was there
enmity between him and the race of the Kshatriyas, and thus was
the whole earth conquered by Paraśuráma.” The destruction of
the Kshatriyas by Paraśuráma had been provoked by the cruelty
of the Kshatriyas. Chips from a German Workshop, Vol. II. p.
The scene in which he appears is probably interpolated for
the sake of making him declare Ráma to be Vishṇu. “Herr von
Schlegel has often remarked to me,” says Lassen, “that with-
out injuring the connexion of the story all the chapters [of the
Rámáyan] might be omitted in which Ráma is regarded as an
incarnation of Vishṇu. In fact, where the incarnation of Vishṇu
as the four sons of Daśaratha is described, the great sacrifice is
already ended, and all the priests remunerated at the termination,
when the new sacrifice begins at which the Gods appear, then
withdraw, and then first propose the incarnation to Vishṇu. If it
had been an original circumstance of the story, the Gods would
certainly have deliberated on the matter earlier, and the celebra-
tion of the sacrifice would have continued without interruption.”
LASSEN, Indische Alterthumskunde, Vol. I. p. 489.
Yáma, Page 68.
Son of Vivasvat=Jima son of Vivanghvat, the Jamshíd of the
later Persians.
Fate, Page 68.
Fate, Page 68.
“The idea of fate was different in India from that which prevailed
in Greece. In Greece fate was a mysterious, inexorable power
which governed men and human events, and from which it was
impossible to escape. In India Fate was rather an inevitable
consequence of actions done in births antecedent to one's present
state of existence, and was therefore connected with the doctrine
of metempsychosis. A misfortune was for the most part a punish-
ment, an expiation of ancient faults not yet entirely cancelled.”
Visvámitra, Page 76.
“Though of royal extraction, Viśvámitra conquered for himself
and his family the privileges of a Brahman.
He became a
Brahman, and thus broke through all the rules of caste. The
Brahmans cannot deny the fact, because it forms one of the
principal subjects of their legendary poems.
But they have
spared no pains to represent the exertions of Viśvámitra, in his
struggle for Brahmanhood, as so superhuman that no one would
easily be tempted to follow his example. No mention is made
of these monstrous penances in the Veda, where the struggle
between Viśvámitra, the leader of the Kuśikas or Bharatas, and
the Brahman Vaśishtha, the leader of the white-robed Tritsus, is
represented as the struggle of two rivals for the place of Purohita
or chief priest and minister at the court of King Sudás, the son of
Pijavana.” Chips from a German Workshop, Vol. II. p. 336.
Household Gods, Page 102.
The Ramayana
“No house is supposed to be without its tutelary divinity, but the
notion attached to this character is now very far from precise.
The deity who is the object of hereditary and family worship,
the Kuladevatá, is always one of the leading personages of the
Hindumythology, asŚiva, VishṇuorDurgá, buttheGrihadevatá
rarely bears any distinct appellation. In Bengal, the domestic
god is sometimes the Sálagrám stone, sometimes the tulasi plant,
sometimes a basket with a little rice in it, and sometimes a water-
jar—to either of which a brief adoration is daily addressed, most
usually by the females of the family. Occasionally small images
of Lakshmi or Chaṇdi fulfil the office, or should a snake appear,
he is venerated as the guardian of the dwelling. In general,
however, in former times, the household deities were regarded
as the unseen spirits of ill, the ghosts and goblins who hovered
about every spot, and claimed some particular sites as their own.
Offerings were made to them in the open air, by scattering a little
rice with a short formula at the close of all ceremonies to keep
them in good humour.
than with the lares or penates of autiquity.”
Page 107.
Śaivya, a king whom earth obeyed,
Once to a hawk a promise made.
Page 107.
The following is a free version of this very ancient story which
occurs more than once in the Mahábhárat:
Chased by a hawk there came a dove
With worn and weary wing,
And took her stand upon the hand
Of Káśí's mighty king.
The monarch smoothed her ruffled plumes
And laid her on his breast,
And cried, “No fear shall vex thee here,
Rest, pretty egg-born, rest!
Fair Káśí's realm is rich and wide,
With golden harvests gay,
But all that's mine will I resign
Ere I my guest betray.”
But panting for his half won spoil
The hawk was close behind.
And with wild cry and eager eye
Came swooping down the wind:
“This bird,” he cried, “my destined prize,
'Tis not for thee to shield:
'Tis mine by right and toilsome flight
O'er hill and dale and field.
Hunger and thirst oppress me sore,
And I am faint with toil:
Thou shouldst not stay a bird of prey
Who claims his rightful spoil.
They say thou art a glorious king,
And justice is thy care:
Then justly reign in thy domain,
Nor rob the birds of air.”
Then cried the king: “A cow or deer
For thee shall straightway bleed,
Or let a ram or tender lamb
The Ramayana
Be slain, for thee to feed.
Mine oath forbids me to betray
My little twice-born guest:
See how she clings with trembling wings
To her protector's breast.”
“No flesh of lambs,” the hawk replied,
“No blood of deer for me;
The falcon loves to feed on doves
And such is Heaven's decree.
But if affection for the dove
Thy pitying heart has stirred,
Let thine own flesh my maw refresh,
Weighed down against the bird.”
He carved the flesh from off his side,
And threw it in the scale,
While women's cries smote on the skies
With loud lament and wail.
He hacked the flesh from side and arm,
From chest and back and thigh,
But still above the little dove
The monarch's scale stood high.
He heaped the scale with piles of flesh,
With sinews, blood and skin,
And when alone was left him bone
He threw himself therein.
Then thundered voices through the air;
The sky grew black as night;
And fever took the earth that shook
To see that wondrous sight.
The blessed Gods, from every sphere,
By Indra led, came nigh:
While drum and flute and shell and lute
Made music in the sky.
They rained immortal chaplets down,
Page 108.
Which hands celestial twine,
And softly shed upon his head
Pure Amrit, drink divine.
Then God and Seraph, Bard and Nymph
Their heavenly voices raised,
And a glad throng with dance and song
The glorious monarch praised.
They set him on a golden car
That blazed with many a gem;
Then swiftly through the air they flew,
And bore him home with them.
Thus Káśí's lord, by noble deed,
Won heaven and deathless fame:
And when the weak protection seek
From thee, do thou the same.
Scenes from the Rámáyan, &c.
Page 108.
The ceremonies that attended the consecration of a king (Abhik-
shepa lit. Sprinkling over) are fully described in Goldstücker's
Dictionary, from which the following extract is made: “The type
of the inauguration ceremony as practised at the Epic period
may probably be recognized in the history of the inauguration
of Ráma, as told in the Rámáyana, and in that of the inaugu-
ration of Yudhishṭhira, as told in the Mahábháratha. Neither
ceremony is described in these poems with the full detail which
is given of the vaidik rite in the Aitareya-Bráhmaṇam; but the
allusion that Ráma was inaugurated by Vaśishṭha and the other
Bráhmanas in the same manner as Indra by the Vasus … and
the observation which is made in some passages that a certain
The Ramayana
rite of the inauguration was performed ‘according to the sacred
rule’ … admit of the conclusion that the ceremony was supposed
to have taken place in conformity with the vaidik injunction.…
As the inauguration of Ráma was intended and the necessary
preparations for it were made when his father Daśaratha was still
alive, but as the ceremony itself, through the intrigues of his
step-mother Kaikeyí, did not take place then, but fourteen years
later, after the death of Daśaratha, an account of the preparatory
ceremonies is given in the Ayodhyákáṇḍa (Book II) as well as in
the Yuddha-Káṇḍa (Book VI.) of the Rámáyaṇa, but an account
of the complete ceremony in the latter book alone. According
to the Ayodhyákáṇḍa, on the day preceding the intended inaugu-
ration Ráma and his wife Sítá held a fast, and in the night they
performed this preliminary rite: Ráma having made his ablu-
tions, approached the idol of Náráyaṇa, took a cup of clarified
butter, as the religious law prescribes, made a libation of it into
the kindled fire, and drank the remainder while wishing what
was agreeable to his heart. Then, with his mind fixed on the
divinity he lay, silent and composed, together with Sítá, on a
bed of Kuśa-grass, which was spread before the altar of Vishṇu,
until the last watch of the night, when he awoke and ordered the
palace to be prepared for the solemnity. At day-break reminded
of the time by the voices of the bards, he performed the usual
morning devotion and praised the divinity. In the meantime the
town Ayodhyá had assumed a festive appearance and the inau-
guration implements had been arranged … golden water-jars,
an ornamented throne-seat, a chariot covered with a splendid
tiger-skin, water taken from the confluence of the Ganges and
Jumna, as well as from other sacred rivers, tanks, wells, lakes,
and from all oceans, honey, curd, clarified butter, fried grain,
Kuśa-grass, flowers, milk; besides, eight beautiful damsels, and
a splendid furious elephant, golden and silver jars, filled with
water, covered with Udumbara branches and various lotus flow-
ers, besides a white jewelled chourie, a white splendid parasol, a
Page 109.
white bull, a white horse, all manner of musical instruments and
bards.… In the preceding chapter … there are mentioned two
white chouries instead of one, and all kinds of seeds, perfumes
andjewels, ascimitar, abow, alitter, agoldenvase, andablazing
fire, and amongst the living implements of the pageant, instead
of the bards, gaudy courtesans, and besides the eight damsels,
professors of divinity, Bráhmaṇas, cows and pure kinds of wild
beasts and birds, the chiefs of town and country-people and the
citizens with their train.”
Page 109.
Then with the royal chaplains they
Took each his place in long array.
The twice born chiefs, with zealous heed,
Made ready what the rite would need.
“Now about the office of a Purohita (house priest). The gods
do not eat the food offered by a king, who has no house-priest
(Purohita). Thence the king even when (not) intending to bring a
HAUG'S Autareya Bráhmanam. Vol. II. p. 528.
Page 110.
There by the gate the Sáras screamed.
The Ramayana
The Sáras or Indian Crane is a magnificent bird easily domes-
ticated and speedily constituting himself the watchman of his
master's house and garden. Unfortunately he soon becomes a
troublesome and even dangerous dependent, attacking strangers
with his long bill and powerful wings, and warring especially
upon “small infantry” with unrelenting ferocity.
Page 120.
My mothers or my sire the king.
All the wives of the king his father are regarded and spoken of
by Ráma as his mothers.
Page 125.
Such blessings as the Gods o'erjoyed
Poured forth when Vritra was destroyed.
Page 125.
“Mythology regards Vritra as a demon or Asur, the implacable
enemy of Indra, but this is not the primitive idea contained in the
name of Vritra. In the hymns of the Veda Vritra appears to be the
thick dark cloud which Indra the God of the firmament attacks
and disperses with his thunderbolt.” GORRESIO.
“In that class of Rig-veda hymns which there is reason to look
upon as the oldest portion of Vedic poetry, the character of Indra
is that of a mighty ruler of the firmament, and his principal feat
is that of conquering the demon Vritra, a symbolical personifi-
cation of the cloud which obstructs the clearness of the sky, and
withholds the fructifying rain from the earth. In his battles with
Vritra he is therefore described as ‘opening the receptacles of the
waters,’ as ‘cleaving the cloud’ with his ‘far-whirling thunder-
bolt,’ as ‘casting the waters down to earth,’ and ‘restoring the
sun to the sky.’ He is in consequence ‘the upholder of heaven,
earth, and firmament,’ and the god ‘who has engendered the sun
and the dawn.’” CHAMBERS'S CYCLOPÆDIA, Indra.
“Throughout these hymns two images stand out before us
with overpowering distinctness. On one side is the bright god of
the heaven, as beneficent as he is irresistible: on the other the
demon of night and of darkness, as false and treachorous as he
is malignant.… The latter (as his name Vritra, from var, to veil,
indicates) is pre-eminently the thief who hides away the rain-
clouds.… But the myth is yet in too early a state to allow of the
definite designations which are brought before us in the conflicts
of Zeus with Typhôn and his monstrous progeny, of Apollôn
with the Pythôn, of Bellerophôn with Chimaira of Oidipous with
the Sphinx, of Hercules with Cacus, of Sigurd with the dragon
Fafnir; and thus not only is Vritra known by many names, but he
is opposed sometimes by Indra, sometimes by Agni the fire-god,
sometimes by Trita, Brihaspati, or other deities; or rather these
are all names of one and the same god.” COX'S Mythology of the
Aryan Nations. Vol. II. p. 326.
The Ramayana
Page 125.
And that prized herb whose sovereign power
Preserves from dark misfortune's hour.
“And yet more medicinal is it than that Moly,
That Hermes once to wise Ulysses gave;
He called it Hæmony, and gave it me,
And bade me keep it as of sovereign use
'Gainst all enchantment, mildew, blast, or damp,
Or ghastly furies' apparition.” Comus.
The Moly of Homer, which Dierbach considers to have been the
Mandrake, is probably a corruption of the Sanskrit Múla a root.
Page 136.
True is the ancient saw: the Neem
Can ne'er distil a honeyed stream.
The Neem tree, especially in the Rains, emits a strong unpleasant
smell like that of onions. Its leaves however make an excellent
for cutaneous disorders.
Page 152.
Who of Nisháda lineage came.
Page 152.
The following account of the origin of the Nishádas is taken
from Wilson's Vishṇu Puráṇa, Book I. Chap. 15. “Afterwards
the Munis beheld a great dust arise, and they said to the people
who were nigh: ‘What is this?’ And the people answered and
said: ‘Now that the kingdom is without a king, the dishonest
men have begun to seize the property of their neighbours. The
great dust that you behold, excellent Munis, is raised by troops of
clustering robbers, hastening to fall upon their prey.’ The sages,
hearing this, consulted, and together rubbed the thigh of the
king (Vena), who had left no offspring, to produce a son. From
the thigh, thus rubbed, came forth a being of the complexion
of a charred stake, with flattened features like a negro, and of
dwarfish stature. ‘What am I to do,’ cried he eagerly to the
Munis. ‘Sit down (nishída),’ said they. And thence his name was
Nisháda. His descendants, the inhabitants of the Vindhyá moun-
tain, great Muni, are still called Nishádas and are characterized
by the exterior tokens of depravity.” Professor Wilson adds, in
his note on the passage: “The Matsya says that there were born
outcast or barbarous races, Mlechchhas, as black as collyrium.
The Bhágavata describes an individual of dwarfish stature, with
short arms and legs, of a complexion as black as a crow, with
projecting chin, broad flat nose, red eyes, and tawny hair, whose
descendants were mountaineers and foresters. The Padma (Bhú-
mi Khaṇḍa) has a similar deccription; adding to the dwarfish
stature and black complexion, a wide mouth, large ears, and a
protuberant belly. It also particularizes his posterity as Nishádas,
Kirátas, Bhillas, and other barbarians and Mlechchhas, living in
woods and on mountains. These passages intend, and do not
much exaggerate, the uncouth appearance of the Gonds, Koles,
Bhils, and other uncivilized tribes, scattered along the forests and
mountains of Central India from Behar to Khandesh, and who
are, not improbably, the predecessors of the present occupants
of the cultivated portions of the country. They are always very
black, ill-shapen, and dwarfish, and have countenances of a very
The Ramayana
African character.”
Manu gives a different origin of the Nishádas as the offspring
of a Bráhman father and a Súdra mother. See Muir's Sanskrit
Texts, Vol. I. p. 481.
Page 157.
Beneath a fig-tree's mighty shade,
With countless pendent shoots displayed.
“So counselled he, and both together went
Into the thickest wood; there soon they chose
The fig-tree: not that kind for fruit renowned,
But such as at this day, to Indians known,
In Malabar or Deccan spreads her arms
Branching so broad and long, that in the ground
The bended twigs take root, and daughters grow
About the mother tree, a pillared shade
High overarched, and echoing walks between.”
Paradise Lost, Book IX.
Page 161.
Now, Lakshmaṇ, as our cot is made,
Must sacrifice be duly paid.
Page 169.
The rites performed in India on the completion of a house are
represented in modern Europe by the familiar “house-warming.”
Page 169.
I longed with all my lawless will
Some elephant by night to kill.
except in battle.
Thy hand has made no Bráhman bleed.
“The punishment which the Code of Manu awards to the
slayer of a Brahman was to be branded in the forehead with the
mark of a headless corpse, and entirely banished from society;
this being apparently commutable for a fine. The poem is there-
fore in accordance with the Code regarding the peculiar guilt
of killing Brahmans; but in allowing a hermit who was not a
Divija (twice-born) to go to heaven, the poem is far in advance
of the Code. The youth in the poem is allowed to read the Veda,
and to accumulate merit by his own as well as his father's pious
acts; whereas the exclusive Code reserves all such privileges
to Divijas invested with the sacred cord.” Mrs. SPEIR'S Life in
Ancient India, p. 107.
Page 174. The Praise Of Kings
“Compare this magnificent eulogium of kings and kingly gov-
ernment with what Samuel says of the king and his authority:
The Ramayana
And Samuel told all the words of the LORD unto the people that
asked of him a king.
And he said, This will be the manner of the king that shall
reign over you: He will take your sons, and appoint them for
himself, for his chariots, and to be his horsemen: and some shall
run before his chariots.
And he will appoint him captains over thousands, and captains
over fifties, and will set them to work his ground, and to reap his
harvest, and to make his instrument of war, and instruments of
his chariots.
And he will take your daughters to be confectionaries, and to
be cooks, and to be bakers.
And he will take your fields, and your vineyards and your
oliveyards, even the best of them, and give them to his servants.
And he will take the tenth of your seed, and of your vineyards,
and give to his officers, and to his servants.
And he will take your men-servants, and your maid-servants,
and your goodliest young men, and your asses, and put them to
his work.
He will take the tenth of your sheep: and ye shall be his
And ye shall cry out in that day because of your king which
ye shall have chosen you. I. Samuel, VIII.
In India kingly government was ancient and consecrated by
tradition: whence to change it seemed disorderly and revolution-
ary: inJudæatheocracywasancientandconsecratedbytradition,
and therefore the innovation which would substitute a king was
represented as full of dangers.” GORRESIO.
Page 176. Sálmalí.
Page 178. Bharat's Return.
According to the Bengal recension Śálmalí appears to have been
another name of the Vipáśá. Śálmalí may be an epithet signifying
rich in Bombax heptaphyllon. The commentator makes another
river out of the word.
Page 178. Bharat's Return.
“Two routes from Ayodhyá to Rájagriha or Girivraja are de-
scribed. That taken by the envoys appears to have been the
shorter one, and we are not told why Bharat returned by a differ-
entroad. Thecapitalofthe KekayaslaytothewestoftheVipáśá.
Between it and the Śatadru stretched the country of the Báhíkas.
Upon the remaining portion of the road the two recensions differ.
According to that of Bengal there follow towards the east the
river Indamatí, then the town Ajakála belonging to the Bodhi,
then Bhulingá, then the river Śaradaṇḍá. According to the other
instead of the first river comes the Ikshumatí … instead of the
first town Abhikála, instead of the second Kulingá, then the
second river. According to the direction of the route both the
above-mentioned rivers must be tributaries of the Śatadrú.… The
road then crossed the Yamuná (Jumna), led beyond that river
through the country of the Panchálas, and reached the Ganges
at Hástinapura, where the ferry was. Thence it led over the
Rámagangá and its eastern tributaries, then over the Gomati, and
then in a southern direction along the Málini, beyond which it
reached Ayodhyá. In Bharat's journey the following rivers are
passed from west to east: Kutikoshṭiká, Uttániká, Kuṭiká, Kapí-
vatí, Gomatí according to Schlegel, and Hiraṇyavatí, Uttáriká,
Kuṭilá, Kapívatí, Gomatí according to Gorresio. As these rivers
are to be looked for on the east of the Ganges, the first must be
the modern Koh, a small affluent of the Rámagangá, over which
the highway cannot have gone as it bends too far to the north.
The Ramayana
The Uttániká or Uttáriká must be the Rámagangá, the Kuṭiká or
Kuṭiláitseasterntributary, Kośilá, theKapívatíthenexttributary
which on the maps has different names, Gurra or above Kailas,
lower down Bhaigu. The Gomatí (Goomtee) retains its old name.
The Máliní, mentioned only in the envoys' journey, must have
been the western tributary of the Sarayú now called Chuká.”
LASSEN'S Indische Alterthumskunde, Vol. II. P. 524.
Page 183.
What worlds await thee, Queen, for this?
“Indian belief divided the universe into several worlds (lokáh).
The three principal worlds were heaven, earth, and hell. But
according to another division there were seven: Bhúrloka or the
earth, Bhuvarloka or the space between the earth and the sun, the
seat of the Munis, Siddhas, &c., Svarloka or the heaven of Indra
between the sun and the polar star, and the seventh Brahmaloka
or the world of Brahma. Spirits which reached the last were
exempt from being born again.” GORRESIO.
Page 203.
When from a million herbs a blaze
Of their own luminous glory plays.
Page 219.
This mention of lambent flames emitted by herbs at night may
be compared with Lucan's description of a similar phenomenon
in the Druidical forest near Marseilles, (Pharsalia, III. 420.).
Non ardentis fulgere incendia silvae.
Seneca, speaking of Argolis, (Thyestes, Act IV), says:—
Tota solet
Micare flamma silva, et excelsae trabes
Ardent sine igni.
Thus also the bush at Horeb (Exod. II.) flamed, but was not
The Indian explanation of the phenomenon is, that the sun
before he sets deposits his rays for the night with the deciduous
plants. See Journal of R. As. S. Bengal, Vol. II. p. 339.
Page 219.
We rank the Buddhist with the thief.
The Ramayana
Schlegel says in his Preface: “Lubrico vestigio insistit V. Cl.
Heerenius, prof.
Gottingensis, in libro suo de commerciis
veterum populorum (OPP. Vol. HIST. XII, pag. 129,) dum putat,
de tempore, quo totum carmen sit conditum, quicquam legitime
concludi posse.… Sunt versus spurii, reiecti a Bengalis in sola
commentatorumrecensioneleguntur. Buddhasquidemmillefere
annis ante Christum natun vixit: sed post multa demumsecula,
odiointernecivo inter Brachmanos et Buddhae sectatores orto,
his denique ex India pulsis, fingi potuit iniquissima criminatio,
eos animi immortalitatem poenasque et praemia in vita futura
negare. Praeterea metrum, quo concinnati sunt hi versus, de quo
metro mox disseram, recentiorem aetatem arguit.… Poenitet me
nunc mei consilii, quod non statim ab initio, … eiecerim cuncta
disticha diversis a sloco vulgari metris composita. Metra sunt
duo: pariter ambo constant quatuor hemistichiis inter se aequal-
ibus, alterum undenarum syllabarum, alterum duodenarum, hunc
in modum:
[-)] [-] [)] [-] [-] [)] [)] [-] [)] [-] [-)]
[)] [-] [)] [-] [-] [)] [)] [-] [)] [-] [)] [-)]
Cuius generis versus in primo et secundo Rameidos libro
nusquam nisi ad finem capitum apposita inveniuntur, et huic
loco unice sunt accommodata, quasi peroratio, lyricis numeris
assurgens, quo magis canorae cadant clausulae: sicut musi-
ci in concentibus extremis omnium vocum instrumentorumque
ictu fortiore aures percellere amant.
Igitur disticha illa non
ante divisionem per capita illatam addi potuerunt: hanc autem
grammaticis deberi argumento est ipse recensionum dissensus,
manifesto inde ortus, quod singuli editores in ea constituenda
suo quisque iudicio usi sunt; praeterquam quod non credibile
est, poetam artis suae peritum narrationem continuam in membra
tamminutadissecuisse. Porrodiscolorestdictio: magniloquentia
affectatur, sed nimis turgida illa atque effusa, nec sententiarum
Page 219.
pondere satis suffulta. Denique nihil fere novi affertur: ampli
ficantur prius dicta, rarius aliquid ex capite sequente anticipatur.
Si quis appendices hosce legendo transiliat, sentiet slocum ulti-
mum cum primo capitis proximi apte coagmentatum, nec sine vi
quadamindeavulsum. Eiusmodiversusexhibetutraquerecensio,
sed modo haec modo illa plures paucioresve numero, et lectio
interdum magnopere variat.”
“The narrative of Ráma's exile in the jungle is one of the most
obscure portions of the Rámáyana, inasmuch as it is difficult to
discover any trace of the original tradition, or any illustration of
actual life and manners, beyond the artificial life of self-mortifi-
cation and selfdenial said to have been led by the Brahman sages
of olden time. At the same time, however, the story throws some
light upon the significance of the poem, and upon the character
in which the Brahmanical author desired to represent Ráma;
and consequently it deserves more serious consideration than the
nature of the subject-matter would otherwise seem to imply.
“According to the Rámáyana, the hero Ráma spent more than
thirteen years of his exile in wandering amongst the different
Brahmanical settlements, which appear to have been scattered
over the country between the Ganges and the Godáveri; his wan-
derings extending from the hill of Chitra-kúṭa in Bundelkund, to
the modern town of Nasik on the western side of India, near the
source of the Godáveri river, and about seventy-five miles to the
north-west of Bombay. The appearance of these Brahmanical
hermitages in the country far away to the south of the Raj of
Kasala, seems to call for critical inquiry. Each hermitage is
said to have belonged to some particular sage, who is famous in
Brahmanical tradition. But whether the sages named were really
contemporaries of Ráma, or whether they could possibly have
flourishedatoneandthesameperiod, isopentoseriousquestion.
It is of course impossible to fix with any degree of certainty the
relative chronology of the several sages, who are said to have
been visited by Ráma; but still it seems tolerably clear that some
The Ramayana
composed, and probably to an age anterior to that in which Ráma
existed as a real and living personage; whilst, at least, one sage is
to be found who could only have existed in the age during which
the Rámáyana was produced in its present form. The main proofs
of these inferences are as follows. An interval of many centuries
seems to have elapsed between the composition of the Rig-Veda
and that of the Rámáyana: a conclusion which has long been
proved by the evidence of language, and is generally accepted
by Sanskrit scholars. But three of the sages, said to have been
are frequently mentioned in the hymns of the Rig-Veda; whilst
Válmíki, the sage dwelling at Chitra-kúṭa, is said to have been
himself the composer of the Rámáyana. Again, the sage Atri,
whom Ráma visited immediately after his departure from Chi-
tra-kúṭa, appears in the genealogical list preserved in the Mahá
Bhárata, as the progenitor of the Moon, and consequently as
the first ancestor of the Lunar race: whilst his grandson Buddha
[Budha] is said to have married Ilá, the daughter of Ikhsváku
who was himself the remote ancestor of the Solar race of Ay-
odhyá, from whom Ráma was removed by many generations.
These conclusions are not perhaps based upon absolute proof,
because they are drawn from untrustworthy authorities; but still
the chronological difficulties have been fully apprehended by
the Pundits, and an attempt has been made to reconcile all con-
tradictions by representing the sages to have lived thousands of
years, and to have often re-appeared upon earth in different ages
widely removed from each other. Modern science refuses to
accept such explanations; and consequently it is impossible to
escape the conclusion that if Válmíki composed the Rámáyana
in the form of Sanskrit in which it has been preserved, he could
not have flourished in the same age as the sages who are named
in the Rig-Veda.” WHEELER'S History of India, Vol. II, 229.
Page 249.
Page 249.
And King Himálaya's Child.
Umá or Párvatí, was the daughter of Himálaya and Mená. She
is the heroine of Kálidása's Kumára-Sambhava or Birth of the
Page 250.
Strong Kumbhakarṇa slumbering deep
In chains of never-ending sleep.
the gigantic brother of the titanic Rá-
vaṇ,—named from the size of his ears which could contain
a Kumbha or large water-jar—had such an appetite that he used
to consume six months' provisions in a single day. Brahmá, to
relieve the alarm of the world, which had begun to entertain
serious apprehensions of being eaten up, decreed that the giant
should sleep six months at a time and wake for only one day
during which he might consume his six months' allowance with-
out trespassing unduly on the reproductive capabilities of the ”
Scenes front the Rámáyan, p. 153, 2nd Edit.
Page 257.
Like Śiva when his angry might
Stayed Daksha's sacrificial rite.
The Ramayana
The following spirited version of this old story is from the pen
of Mr. W. Waterfield:
“This is a favorite subject of Hindú sculpture, especially on
the temples of Shiva, such as the caves of Elephanta and Ellora.
It, no doubt, is an allegory of the contest between the followers
of Shiva and the worshippers of the Elements, who observed the
old ritual of the Vedas; in which the name of Shiva is never
Daksha for devotion
Made a mighty feast:
Milk and curds and butter,
Flesh of bird and beast,
Rice and spice and honey,
Sweetmeats ghí and gur,1038
Gifts for all the Bráhmans,
Food for all the poor.
At the gates of Gangá1039
Daksha held his feast;
Called the gods unto it,
Greatest as the least.
All the gods were gathered
Round with one accord;
All the gods but Umá,
All but Umá's lord.
Umá sat with Shiva
On Kailása hill:
Round them stood the Rudras
Watching for their will.
Who is this that cometh
Lilting to his lute?
All the birds of heaven
1038Ghí: clarified butter. Gur: molasses.
1039Haridwar (Anglicè Hurdwar) where the Ganges enters the plain country.
Page 257.
Heard his music, mute.
Round his head a garland
Rich of hue was wreathed:
Every sweetest odour
From its blossoms breathed.
'Tis the Muni Nárad;
'Mong the gods he fares,
Ever making mischief
By the tales he bears.
“Hail to lovely Umá!
Hail to Umá's lord!
Wherefore are they absent
For her father's board?
Multiplied his merits
Would be truly thrice,
Could he gain your favour
For his sacrifice.”
Worth of heart was Umá;
To her lord she spake:—
“Why dost thou, the mighty,
Of no rite partake?
Straight I speed to Daksha
Such a sight to see:
If he be my father,
He must welcome thee.”
Wondrous was in glory
Daksha's holy rite;
Never had creation
Viewed so brave a sight.
Gods, and nymphs, find fathers,
Sages, Bráhmans, sprites,—
Every diverge creature
Wrought that rite of rites.
Quickly then a quaking
The Ramayana
Fell on all from far;
Umá stood among them
On her lion car.
“Greeting, gods and sages,
Greeting, father mine!
Work hath wondrous virtue,
Where such aids combine.
Guest-hall never gathered
Goodlier company:
Seemeth all are welcome.
All the gods but me.”
Spake the Muni Daksha,
Stern and cold his tone:—
“Welcome thou, too, daughter,
Since thou com'st alone.
But thy frenzied husband
Suits another shrine;
He is no partaker
Of this feast of mine.
He who walks in darkness
Loves no deeds of light:
He who herds with demons
Shuns each kindly sprite.
Let him wander naked.—
Wizard weapons wield,—
Dance his frantic measure
Round the funeral field.
Art thou yet delighted
With the reeking hide,
Body smeared with ashes.
Skulls in necklace tied?
Thou to love this monster?
Thou to plead his part!
Know the moon and Gangá
Page 257.
Share that faithless heart
Vainly art thou vying
With thy rivals' charms.
Are not coils of serpents
Softer than thine arms?”
Words like these from Daksha
Daksha's daughter heard:
Then a sudden passion
All her bosom stirred.
Eyes with fury flashing.
Speechless in her ire,
Headlong did she hurl her
'Mid the holy fire.
Then a trembling terror
Overcame each one,
And their minds were troubled
Like a darkened sun;
And a cruel Vision,
Face of lurid flame,
Umá's Wrath incarnate,
From the altar came.
Fiendlike forms by thousands
Started from his side,
'Gainst the sacrificers
All their might they plied:
Till the saints availed not
Strength like theirs to stay,
And the gods distracted
Turned and fled away.
Hushed were hymns and chanting,
Priests were mocked and spurned;
Food defiled and scattered;
Altars overturned.—
Then, to save the object
The Ramayana
Sought at such a price,
Like a deer in semblance
Sped the sacrifice.
Soaring toward the heavens,
Through the sky it fled?
But the Rudras chasing
Smote away its head.
Prostrate on the pavement
Daksha fell dismayed:—
“Mightiest, thou hast conquered
Thee we ask for aid.
Let not our oblations
All be rendered vain;
Let our toilsome labour
Full fruition gain.”
Bright the broken altars
Shone with Shiva's form;
“Be it so!” His blessing
Soothed that frantic storm.
Soon his anger ceases,
Though it soon arise;—
But the Deer's Head ever
Blazes in the skies.”
Indian Ballads and other Poems.
Page 286. Urvasí.
“The personification of Urvasî herself is as thin as that of Eôs
or Selênê. Her name is often found in the Veda as a mere name
for the morning, and in the plural number it is used to denote
the dawns which passing over men bring them to old age and
Page 286. Urvasí.
death. Urvasîisthebrightflushoflightoverspreadingtheheaven
beforethesunrises, andisbutanotherformofthemanymythical
beings of Greek mythology whose names take us back to the
same idea or the same root. As the dawn in the Vedic hymns
is called Urûkî, the far-going (Têlephassa, Têlephos), so is she
also Uruasî, the wide-existing or wide-spreading; as are Eurôpê,
Euryanassa, Euryphassa, and many more of the sisters of Athênê
and Aphroditê. As such she is the mother of Vasishtha, the bright
being, as Oidipous is the son of Iokastê; and although Vasishtha,
like Oidipous, has become a mortal bard or sage, he is still the
sonofMitraandVaruṇa, ofnightandday. HerloverPurûravasis
the counterpart of the Hellenic Polydeukês; but the continuance
of her union with him depends on the condition that she never
sees him unclothed. But the Gandharvas, impatient of her long
sojourn among mortal men resolved to bring her back to their
bright home; and Purûravas is thus led unwitingly to disregard
her warning. A ewe with two lambs was tied to her couch, and
the Gandharvas stole one of them; Urvasî said, ‘They take away
my darling, as if I lived in a land where there is no hero and
no man.’ They stole the second, and she upbraided her husband
again. Then Purûravas looked and said, ‘How can that be a land
without heroes or men where I am?’ And naked he sprang up; he
thought it was too long to put on his dress. Then the Gandharvas
sent a flash of lighting, and Urvasî saw her husband naked as by
daylight. Then she vanished. ‘I come back,’ she said, and went.
‘Then he bewailed his vanished love in bitter grief.’ Her promise
to return was fulfilled, but for a moment only, at the Lotos-lake,
and Purûravas in vain beseeches her to tarry longer. ‘What shall
I do with thy speech?’ is the answer of Urvasî. ‘I am gone like
the first of the dawns. Purûravas, go home again. I am hard
to be caught like the winds.’ Her lover is in utter despair; but
when he lies down to die, the heart of Urvasî was melted, and
she bids him come to her on the last night of the year. On that
night only he might be with her; but a son should be born to him.
The Ramayana
On that day he went up to the golden seats, and there Urvasî told
him that the Gandharvas would grant him one wish, and that he
must make his choice. ‘Choose thou for me,’ he said: and she
answered, ‘Say to them, Let me be one of you.’”
COX'S Mythology of the Aryan Nations. Vol. I. p. 397.
Page 324.
The sovereign of the Vánar race.
“Vánar is one of the most frequently occurring names by which
the poem calls the monkeys of Ráma's army. Among the two
or three derivations of which the word Vánar is susceptible, one
is that which deduces it from vana which signifies a wood, and
thus Vánar would mean a forester, an inhabitant of the wood. I
have said elsewhere that the monkeys, the Vánars, whom Ráma
led to the conquest of Ceylon were fierce woodland tribes who
occupied the mountainous regions of the south of India, where
their descendants may still be seen. I shall hence forth promis-
cuously employ the word Vánar to denote those monkeys, those
fierce combatants of Ráma's army.” GORRESIO.
Page 326.
No change of hue, no pose of limb
Gave sign that aught was false in him.
Concise, unfaltering, sweet and clear,
Without a word to pain the ear,
From chest to throat, nor high nor low,
His accents came in measured flow.
Page 329. Ráma's Alliance With Sugríva.
Somewhat similarly in The Squire's Tale:
“He with a manly voice said his message,
After the form used in his language,
Withouten vice of syllable or of letter.
And for his talë shouldë seem the better
Accordant to his wordës was his chere,
As teacheth art of speech them that it lere.”
Page 329. Ráma's Alliance With Sugríva.
“The literal interpretation of this portion of the Rámáyana is
indeed deeply rooted in the mind of the Hindu. He implicitly
believes that Ráma is Vishnu, who became incarnate for the
purpose of destroying the demon Rávana: that he permitted his
wife to be captured by Rávana for the sake of delivering the gods
and Bráhmans from the oppressions of the Rákshasa; and that he
of the gods, and led them against the strong-hold of Rávana at
Lanká, and delivered the world from the tyrant Rákshasa, whilst
obtaining ample revenge for his own personal wrongs.
One other point seems to demand consideration, namely, the
possibility of such an alliance as that which Ráma is said to have
concluded with the monkeys. This possibility will of course be
denied by modern critics, but still it is interesting to trace out
the circumstances which seem to have led to the acceptance of
such a wild belief by the dreamy and marvel loving Hindi. The
south of India swarms with monkeys of curious intelligence and
rare physical powers. Their wonderful instinct for organization,
their attachment to particular localities, their occasional journeys
in large numbers over mountains and across rivers, their obsti-
nate assertion of supposed rights, and the ridiculous caricature
The Ramayana
which they exhibit of all that is animal and emotional in man,
would naturally create a deep impression.… Indeed the habits of
monkeys well deserve to be patiently studied; not as they appear
in confinement, when much that is revolting in their nature is
developed, but as they appear living in freedom amongst the
trees of the forest, or in the streets of crowded cities, or precincts
of temples. Such a study would not fail to awaken strange ideas;
and although the European would not be prepared to regard
monkeys as sacred animals he might be led to speculate as to
their origin by the light of data, which are at present unknown
to the naturalist whose observations have been derived from the
menagerie alone.
Whatever, however, may have been the train of ideas which
led the Hindú to regard the monkey as a being half human and
half divine, there can be little doubt that in the Rámáyana the
monkeys of southern India have been confounded with what may
be called the aboriginal people of the country. The origin of this
confusion may be easily conjectured. Perchance the aborigines
of the country may have been regarded as a superior kind of
monkeys; and to this day the features of the Marawars, who are
are not only different from those of their neighbours, but are of a
character calculated to confirm the conjecture. Again, it is prob-
able that the army of aborigines may have been accompanied by
outlying bands of monkeys impelled by that magpie-like curios-
ity and love of plunder which are the peculiar characteristics of
the monkey race; and this incident may have given rise to the
story that the army was composed of Monkeys.”
WHEELER'S History of India. Vol. II. pp. 316 ff.
Page 342. The Fall Of Báli.
Page 370. The Vánar Host.
“As regards the narrative, it certainly seems to refer to some real
event amongst the aboriginal tribes: namely, the quarrel between
an elder and younger brother for the possession of a Ráj; and
the subsequent alliance of Ráma with the younger brother. It
is somewhat remarkable that Ráma appears to have formed an
alliance with the wrong party, for the right of Báli was evidently
superior to that of Sugríva; and it is especially worthy of note
that Ráma compassed the death of Báli by an act contrary to
all the laws of fair fighting. Again, Ráma seems to have tacitly
sanctioned the transfer of Tárá from Báli to Sugríva, which was
directly opposed to modern rule, although in conformity with the
rude customs of a barbarous age; and it is remarkable that to this
day the marriage of both widows and divorced women is prac-
tised by the Marawars, or aborigines of the southern Carnatic,
contrary to the deeply-rooted prejudice which exists against such
unions amongst the Hindús at large.”
WHEELER'S History of India, Vol. II. 324.
Page 370. The Vánar Host.
“The splendid Marutas form the army of Indras, the red-haired
monkeys and bears that of Râmas; and the mythical and solar
nature of the monkeys and bears of the Râmâyaṇam manifests
itself several times. The king of the monkeys is a sun-god. The
ancient king was named Bâlin, and was the son of Indras. His
younger brother Sugrívas, he who changes his shape at pleasure
(Kâmarúpas), who, helped by Râmas, usurped his throne, is said
to be own child of the sun. Here it is evident that the Vedic antag-
onism between Indras and Vishṇus is reproduced in a zoological
and entirely apish form. The old Zeus must give way to the new,
The Ramayana
the moon to the sun, the evening to the morning sun, the sun of
winter to that of spring; the young son betrays and overthrows
the old one.… Râmas, who treacherously kills the old king of
the monkeys, Bâlin, is the equivalent of Vishṇus, who hurls his
predecessor Indras from his throne; and Sugrívas, the new king
of the monkeys resembles Indras when he promises to find the
ravished Sítá, in the same way as Vishṇus in one of his incarna-
tions finds again the lost vedás. And there are other indications in
the Râmâyaṇam of opposition between Indras and the monkeys
who assist Râmas. The great monkey Hanumant, of the reddish
colour of gold, has his jaw broken, Indras having struck him with
his thunderbolt and caused him to fall upon a mountain, because,
while yet a child, he threw himself off a mountain into the air in
order to arrest the course of the sun, whose rays had no effect
upon him. (The cloud rises from the mountain and hides the
sun, which is unable of itself to disperse it; the tempest comes,
and brings flashes of lightning and thunder-bolts, which tear the
cloud in pieces.)
The whole legend of the monkey Hanumant represents the
sun entering into the cloud or darkness, and coming out of it.
His father is said to be now the wind, now the elephant of the
monkeys (Kapikunjaras), now Keśarin, the long-haired sun, the
sun with a mane, the lion sun (whence his name of Keśariṇah
putrah). From this point of view, Hanumant would seem to be
the brother of Sugrívas, who is also the offspring of the sun.…
All the epic monkeys of the Râmâyaṇam are described in
the twentieth canto of the first book by expressions which very
closely resemble those applied in the Vedic hymns to the Maru-
tas, as swift as the tempestuous wind, changing their shape at
pleasure, making a noise like clouds, sounding like thunder,
battling, hurling mountain-peaks, shaking great uprooted trees,
stirring up the deep waters, crushing the earth with their arms,
making the clouds fall. Thus Bâlin comes out of the cavern as
the sun out of the cloud.…
Page 372.
But the legend of the monkey Hanumant presents another
curious resemblance to that of Samson. Hanumant is bound with
cords by Indrajit, son of Rávaṇas; he could easily free himself,
but does not wish to do so. Rávaṇas to put him to shame, orders
his tail to be burned, because the tail is the part most prized by
The tail of Hanumant, which sets fire to the city of the mon-
sters, is probably a personification of the rays of the morning or
spring sun, which sets fire to the eastern heavens, and destroys
the abode of the nocturnal or winter monsters.”
DE GUBERNATIS, Zoological Mythology, Vol. II. pp. 100 ff.
“The Jaitwas of Rajputana, a tribe politically reckoned as
Rajputs, nevertheless trace their descent from the monkey-god
Hanuman, and confirm it by alleging that their princes still bear
its evidence in a tail-like prolongation of the spine; a tradition
which has probably a real ethnological meaning, pointing out the
Jaitwas as of non-Aryan race.”1040TYLOR'S Primitive Culture,
Vol. I. p. 341.
Page 372.
The names of peoples occurring in the following ślokas are
omitted in the metrical translation:
1040Campbell in “Journ. As. Soc. Bengal,” 1866, Part ii. p. 132; Latham,
“Descr. Eth.” Vol. ii. p. 456; Tod, “Annals of Rajasthan,” Vol. i. p. 114.
1041Said by the commentator to be an eastern people between the Himálayan
and Vindhyan chains.
1042Videha was a district in the province of Behar, the ancient Mithilá or the
modern Tirhoot.
The Ramayana
the Káśikośalas,1044
the Mágadnas,1045
Puṇḍras,1046and the Angas,1047and the land of the weavers
of silk, and the land of the mines of silver, and the hills that
stretch into the sea, and the towns and the hamlets that are about
the top of Mandar, and the Karṇaprávaraṇas,1048and the Os-
1043The people of Malwa.
1044“The Káśikośalas are a central nation in the Váyu Puráṇa. The Rámáyaṇa
places them in the east.
The combination indicates the country between
Benares and Oude.… Kośala is a name variously applied. Its earliest and most
celebrated application is tothe country on the banks ofthe Sarayú, the kingdom
of Ráma, of which Ayodhyá was the capital.… In the Mahábhárata we have
one Kośala in the east and another in the south, besides the Prák-Kośalas and
Uttara Kośalas in the east and north. The Puráṇas place the Kośalas amongst
the people on the back of Vindhya; and it would appear from the Váyu that
Kuśa the son of Ráma transferred his kingdom to a more central position;
he ruled over Kośala at his capital of Kúśasthali of Kuśavatí, built upon the
Vindhyan precipices.” WILSON'S{FNS Vishnṇu Púraṇa, Vol. II. pp. 157, 172.
1045The people of south Behar.
1046The Puṇḍras are said to be the inhabitants of the western provinces of
Bengal. “In the Aitareyabráhmaṇa, VII. 18, it is said that the elder sons of
Viśvamitra were cursed to become progenitors of most abject races, such as
Andhras, Puṇḍras, Śabaras, Pulindas, and Mútibas.” WILSON'S{FNS Vishṇu
Puráṇa Vol. II. 170.
1047Anga is the country about Bhagulpore, of which Champá was the capital.
1048A fabulous people, “men who use their ears as a covering.” So Sir John
Maundevile says: “And in another Yle ben folk that han gret Eres and long,
Page 374.
hṭhakarṇakas,1049and the Ghoralohamukhas,1050and the swift
Ekapádakas,1051and the strong imperishable Eaters of Men, and
the Kirátas1052with stiff hair-tufts, men like gold and fair to look
upon: And the Eaters of Raw Fish, and the Kirátas who dwell in
islands, and the fierce Tiger-men1053who live amid the waters.”
Page 374.
that hangen down to here knees,” and Pliny, lib. iv. c. 13: “In quibus nuda
alioquin corpora prægrandes ipsorum aures tota contegunt.” Isidore calls them
1049“Those whose ears hang down to their lips.”
1050“The Iron-faces.”
1051“The One-footed.”
“In that Contree,” says Sir John Maundevile, “ben folk, that han but o
foot and thei gon so fast that it is marvaylle: and the foot is so large that it
schadeweth alle the Body azen the Sonne, when thei wole lye and rest hem.”
So Pliny, Natural History, lib. vii. c. 2: speaks of “Hominumn gens … singulis
cruribus, miræ pernicitatis ad saltum; eosdemque Sciopodas vocari, quod in
majori æstu, humi jacentes resupini, umbrâ se pedum protegant.”
These epithets are, as Professor Wilson remarks, “exaggerations of national
ugliness, or allusions to peculiar customs, which were not literally intended,
although they may have furnished the Mandevilles of ancient and modern
Vishṇu Puráṇa, Vol. II. p. 162.
1052The Kirrhadæ of Arrian: a general name for savage tribes living in woods
and mountains.
1053Said by the commentator to be half tigers half men.
The Ramayana
“Go to the Vidarbhas1054and the Rishṭikas1055and the
Mahishikas,1056and the Matsyas1057and Kalingas1058and the
Kauśikas1059… and the Andhras1060and the Puṇḍras1061and the
1054The kingdom seems to have corresponded with the greater part of Berar
and Khandesh.
1055The Bengal recension has Kishikas, and places them both in the south and
the north.
1056The people of Mysore.
1057“There are two Matsyas, one of which, according to the Yantra Samráj, is
identifiable with Jeypoor. In the Digvijaya of Nakula he subdues the Matsyas
further to the west, or Gujerat.” WILSON'S{FNS Vishṇu Puráṇa, Vol. II.
158. Dr. Hall observes: “In the Mahábhárata Sabhá-parwan, 1105 and 1108,
notice is taken of the king of Matsya and of the Aparamatsyas; and, at 1082,
the Matsyas figure as an eastern people. They are placed among the nations
of the south in the Rámáyaṇa Kishkindhá-káṇda, XLI., II, while the Bengal
recension, Kishkindhá-káṇḍa, XLIV., 12, locates them in the north.”
1058The Kalingas were the people of the upper part of the Coromandel Coast,
well known, in the traditions of the Eastern Archipelago, as Kling. Ptole-
my has a city in that part, called Caliga; and Pliny Calingæ proximi mari.
WILSON'S{FNS Vishṇu Puráṇa, Vol. II. 156, Note.
1059The Kauśikas do not appear to be identifiable.
1060The Andhras probably occupied the modern Telingana.
1061The Puṇḍras have already been mentioned in Canto XL.
Page 374.
Cholas1062and the Paṇḍyas1063and the Keralas,1064Mlechch-
has1065and the Pulindas1066and the Śúrasenas,1067and the
Prasthalas and the Bharatas and Madrakas1068and the Kámbo-
1062The inhabitants of the lower part of the Coromandel Coast; so called, after
them, Cholamaṇdala.
1063A people in the Deccan.
1064The Keralas were the people of Malabar proper.
1065A generic term for persons speaking any language but Sanskrit and not
conforming to the usual Hindu institutions.
1066“Pulinda is applied to any wild or barbarous tribe. Those here named are
some of the people of the deserts along the Indus; but Pulindas are met with
in many other positions, especially in the mountains and forests across Central
India, the haunts of the Bheels and Gonds. So Ptolemy places the Pulindas
along the banks of the Narmadá, to the frontiers of Larice, the Látá or Lár of
the Hindus,—Khandesh and part of Gujerat.” WILSON'S{FNS Vishṇu Puráṇa,
Vol. II. 159, Note.
Dr. Hall observes that “in the Bengal recension of the Rámáyaṇa the
Pulindas appear both in the south and in the north. The real Rámáyaṇa K.-k.,
XLIII., speaks of the northern Pulindas.”
1067The Śúrasenas were the inhabitants of Mathurá, the Suraseni of Arrian.
1068These the Mardi of the Greeks and the two preceding tribes appear to have
dwelt in the north-west of Hindustan.
The Ramayana
jas1069and the Yavanas1070and the towns of the Śakas1071and
the Varadas.”1072
Page 378. Northern Kurus.
Professor Lassen remarks in the Zeitschrift für die Kunde des
Morgenlandes, ii. 62: “At the furthest accessible extremity of the
earth appears Harivarsha with the northern Kurus. The region
of Hari or Vishṇu belongs to the system of mythical geography;
but the case is different with the Uttara Kurus. Here there is a
real basis of geographical fact; of which fable has only taken
advantage, without creating it. The Uttara Kurus were formerly
quite independent of the mythical system of dvípas, though they
were included in it at an early date.” Again the same writer says
at p. 65: “That the conception of the Uttara Kurus is based upon
an actual country and not on mere invention, is proved (1) by
the way in which they are mentioned in the Vedas; (2) by the
existence of Uttara Kuru in historical times as a real country; and
1069The Kámbojas are said to be the people of Arachosia. They are always
mentioned with the north-western tribes.
1070“The term Yavanas, although, in later times, applied to the Mohammedans,
designated formerly the Greeks.… The Greeks were known throughout West-
ern Asia by the term Yavan, or Ion. That the Macedonian or Bactrian Greeks
were most usually intended is not only probable from their position and rela-
tions with India, but from their being usually named in concurrence with the
north-western tribes, Kámbojas, Daradas, Páradas, Báhlíkas, Śakas &c., in the
Rámáyaṇa. Mahábhárata, Puránas, Manu, and in various poems and plays.”
WILSON'S{FNS Vishṇu Puráṇa Vol. II. p. 181, Note.
1071These people, the Sakai and Sacæ of classical writers, the Indo-Scythians
of Ptolemy, extended, about the commencement of our era, along the west of
India, from the Hindu Kosh to the mouths of the Indus.
1072The corresponding passage in the Bengal recension has instead of Varadas
Daradas the Dards or inhabitants of the modern Dardistan along the course of
the Indus, above the Himálayas, just before it descends to India.
Page 378. Northern Kurus.
(3) by the way in which the legend makes mention of that region
asthehomeofprimitivecustoms. Tobeginwiththelastpointthe
Mahábhárata speaks as follows of the freer mode of life which
women led in the early world, Book I. verses 4719-22: ‘Women
were formerly unconfined and roved about at their pleasure, in-
dependent. Though in their youthful innocence they abandoned
their husbands, they were guilty of no offence; for such was the
rule in early times. This ancient custom is even now the law for
creatures born as brutes, which are free from lust and anger. This
custom is supported by authority and is observed by great rishis,
and it is still practiced among the northern Kurus.’
“The idea which is here conveyed is that of the continuance in
one part of the world of that original blessedness which prevailed
in the golden age. To afford a conception of the happy condition
of the southern Kurus it is said in another place (M.-Bh, i. 4346.)
‘The southern Kurus vied in happiness with the northern Kurus
and with the divine rishis and bards.’
Professor Lassen goes on to say: ‘Ptolemy (vi. 16.) is also
acquainted with Uttara Kuru. He speaks of a mountain, a peo-
ple, and a city called Ottorakorra. Most of the other ancient
authors who elsewhere mention this name, have it from him.
It is a part of the country which he calls Serica; according to
him the city lies twelve degrees west from the metropolis of
Sera, and the mountain extends from thence far to the eastward.
As Ptolemy has misplaced the whole of eastern Asia beyond
the Ganges, the relative position which he assigns will guide
us better that the absolute one, which removes Ottorakorra so
far to the east that a correction is inevitable. According to my
opinion the Ottorakorra of Ptolemy must be sought for to the
east of Kashgar.’ Lassen also thinks that Magasthenes had the
Uttara Kurus in view when he referred to the Hyperboreans who
were fabled by Indian writers to live a thousand years. In his
Indian antiquities, (Ind. Alterthumskunde, i. 511, 512. and note,)
the same writer concludes that though the passages above cited
The Ramayana
relative to the Uttara Kurus indicate a belief in the existence of a
really existing country of that name in the far north, yet that the
descriptions there given are to be taken as pictures of an ideal
paradise, and not as founded on any recollections of the northern
origin of the Kurus. It is probable, he thinks, that some such
reminiscences originally existed, and still survived in the Vedic
era, though there is no trace of their existence in latter times.”
MUIR'S Sanskrit Texts, Vol. II. pp. 336, 337.
Page 428.
Trust to these mighty Vánars.
The corresponding passage in the Bengal recension has “these
silvans in the forms of monkeys, vánaráh kapirupinah.” “Here
it manifestly appears,” says Gorresio, “that these hosts of com-
batants whom Ráma led to the conquest of Lanká (Ceylon) the
kingdom and seat of the Hamitic race, and whom the poem calls
monkeys, were in fact as I have elsewhere observed, inhabitants
of the mountainous and southern regions of India, who were
wild-looking and not altogether unlike monkeys. They were
perhaps the remote ancestors of the Malay races.”
Page 431.
"Art thou not he who slew of old
The Serpent-Gods, and stormed their hold."
Page 434.
All these exploits of Rávaṇ are detailed in the Uttarakáṇḍa, and
epitomized in the Appendix.
Page 434.
Within the consecrated hall.
The Bráhman householder ought to maintain three sacred fires,
the Gárhapatya, the Ahavaniya and the Dakshiṇa. These three
fires were made use of in many Brahmanical solemnities, for
example in funeral rites when the three fires were arranged in
prescribed order.
Page 436.
Fair Punjikasthalá I met.
“I have not noticed in the Úttara Káṇda any story about the
daughter of Varuṇa, but the commentator on the text (VI 60, 11)
explains the allusion to her thus:
“The daughter of Varuṇa was Punjikasthalí. On her account,
a curse of Brahmá, involving the penalty of death, [was pro-
nounced] on the rape of women.” MUIR, Sanskrit Texts, Part IV.
Page 452.
“Shall no funereal honours grace
The parted lord of Raghu's race?”
The Ramayana
“Here are indicated those admirable rites and those funeral
prayers which Professor Müller has described in his excellent
work, Die Todtenbestattung bei den Brahmanen, Sítá laments
that the body of Ráma will not be honoured with those rites and
prayers, nor will the Bráhman priest while laying the ashes from
the pile in the bosom of the earth, pronounce over them those
solemn and magnificent words: ‘Go unto the earth, thy mother,
the ample, wide, and blessed earth.… And do thou, O Earth,
open and receive him as a friend with sweet greeting: enfold
him in thy bosom as a mother wraps her child in her robes.’”
Page 462.
Each glorious sign
That stamps the future queen is mine.
We read in Josephus that Caesar was so well versed in chiro-
mancy that when one day a soi-disant son of Herod had audience
of him, he at once detected the impostor because his hand was
destitute of all marks of royalty.
Page 466.
In battle's wild Gandharva dance.
Page 470.
“Here the commentator explains: ‘the battle resembled the dance
of the Gandharvas,’ in accordance with the notion of the Gand-
harvas entertained in his day. They were regarded as celestial
musicians enlivening with their melodies Indra's heaven and
the banquets of the Gods. But the Gandharvas before becoming
celestial musicians in popular tradition, were in the primitive
and true signification of the name heroes, spirited and ardent
warriors, followers of Indra, and combined the heroical character
with their atmospherical deity. Under this aspect the dance of
the Gandharvas may be a very different thing from what the
commentator means, and may signify the horrid dance of war.”
The Homeric expression is similar, “to dance a war-dance
before Ares.”
Page 470.
By Anaraṇya's lips of old.
“The story of Anaraṇya is told in the Uttara Kaṇḍa of the
Rámáyaṇa.… Anaraṇya a descendant of Ixváku and King of Ay-
odhyá, when called upon to fight with Rávaṇa or acknowledge
himself conquered, prefers the former alternative; but his army
is overcome, and he himself is thrown from his chariot.
When Rávaṇa triumphs over his prostrate foe, the latter says
that he has been vanquished not by him but by fate, and that
Rávaṇa is only the instrument of his overthrow; and he predicts
that Rávaṇa shall one day be slain by his descendant Ráma.”
Sanskrit Texts, IV., Appendix.
The Ramayana
Page 497.
“With regard to the magic image of Sítá made by Indrajit, we
may observe that this thoroughly oriental idea is also found in
Greece in Homer's Iliad, where Apollo forms an image of Æneas
to save that hero beloved by the Gods: it occurs too in the Æneid
of Virgil where Juno forms a fictitious Æneas to save Turnus:
Tum dea nube cava tenuem sine viribus umbram
In faciem Æneæ (visu mirabile monstrum)
Dardaniis ornat telis; clipeumque jubasque
Divini assimulat capitis; dat inania verba;
Dat sine mente sonum, gressusque effingit euntis.
(Æneidos, lib. X.)” GORRESIO.
Page 489.
"To Raghu's son my chariot lend."
“Analogous to this passage of the Rámáyana, where Indra sends
toRámahisownchariot, hisowncharioteer, andhisownarms, is
the passage in the Æneid where Venus descending from heaven
brings celestial arms to her son Æneas when he is about to enter
the battle:
At Venus æthereos inter dea candida nimbos
Dona fereus aderat;…

Arma sub adversa posuit radiantia quercum.
Ille, deæ donis et tanto lætus honore,
Expleri nequit, atque oculus per singula volvit,
Miraturque, interque manus et brachia versat
Terribilem cristis galeam flammasque vomentem,
Fatiferumque ensem, loricam ex ære rigentem.
Page 489.
(Æneidos, lib. VIII)” GORRESIO.
Page 489.
Agastya came and gently spake.
“The Muni or saint Agastya, author of several Vedic hymns,
was celebrated in Indo-Sanskrit tradition for having directed the
first brahmanical settlements in the southern regions of India;
and the Mahábhárata gives him the credit of having subjected
those countries, expelled the Rákshases. and given security to
the solitary ascetics, who were settled there. Hence Agastya
was regarded in ancient legend as the conqueror and ruler of the
southern country. This tradition refers to the earliest migrations
made by the Sanskrit Indians towards the south of India. To
Agastya are attributed many marvellous mythic deeds which
adumbrate and veil ancient events; some of which are alluded to
here and there in the Rámáyana.” GORRESIO.
The following is the literal translation of the Canto, text and
commentary, from the Calcutta edition:
Having found Ráma weary with fighting and buried in deep
the holy Agastya, who had come to see the battle, approached
Ráma and spoke to him thus: “O mighty Ráma, listen to the old
mystery by which thou wilt conquer all thy foes in the battle.
Having daily repeated the Ádityahridaya (the delighter of the
mind of the Sun) the holy prayer which destroys all enemies (of
him who repeats it) gives victory, removes all sins, sorrows and
distress, increases life, and which is the blessing of all blessings,
worship the rising and splendid sun who is respected by both
The Ramayana
the Gods and demons, who gives light to all bodies and who is
the rich lord of all the worlds, (To the question why this prayer
claims so great reverence; the sage answers) Since yonder1073
sun is full of glory and all gods reside in him (he being their
material cause) and bestows being and the active principle on all
creatures by his rays; and since he protects all deities, demons
and men with his rays.
Apàm Pati i.e.
The lord of wa-
1073From the word yonder it would appear that the prayer is to be repeated at
the rising of the Sun.
1074The creator of the world and the first of the Hindu triad.
1075He who pervades all beings; or the second of the Hindu triad who preserves
the world.
1076The bestower of blessings; the third of the Hindu triad and the destroyer of
the world.
1077A name of the War-God; also one who urges the senses to action.
1078The lord of creatures; or the God of sacrifices.
1079A name of the King of Gods; also all-powerful.
1080The giver of wealth. A name of the God of riches.
1081One who directly urges the mental faculties to action.
1082One who moderates the senses, also the God of the regions of the dead.
1083One who produces nectar (amrita) or one who is always possessed of light;
or one together with Umá (Ardhanáríśvara).
1084The names or spirits of departed ancestors.
1085Name of a class of eight Gods, also wealthy.
1086They who are to be served by Yogís; or a class of Gods named Sádhyas.
1087The two physicians of the Gods: or they who pervade all beings.
Page 489.
1088They who are immortal; or a class of Gods forty-nine in number.
1089Omniscient; or the first king of the world.
1090He that moves; life; or the God of wind.
1091The God of fire.
1092Lord of creatures.
1093One who prolongs our lives.
1094The material cause of knowledge and of the seasons.
1095One who shines. The giver of light.
1096The hymn entitled the Ádityahridaya begins from this verse and the words,
thou art, are understood in the beginning of this verse.
1097One who enjoys all (pleasurable) objects; The son of Aditi, the lord of the
solar disk.
1098One who creates the world, i.e., endows beings with life or soul, and by his
rays causes rain and thereby produces corn.
1099One who urges the world to action or puts the world in motion, who is
1100One who walks through the sky; or pervades the soul.
1101One who nourishes the world, i.e., is the supporter.
The Ramayana
1102One having rays (Gabhasti) or he who is possessed of the all-pervading
goddess Lakshmí.
1103One resembling gold.
1104One who is resplendent or who gives light to other objects.
1105One whose seed (Retas) is gold; or quicksilver, the material cause of gold.
1106One who is the cause of day.
1107One whose horses are of tawny colour; or one who pervades the whole
space or quarters.
1108One whose knowledge is boundless or who has a thousand rays.
1109One who urges the seven (Práṇas) that is the two eyes, the two ears, the
nostrils and the organ of speech, or whose chariot, is drawn by seven horses.
1110Vide Gabhastimán.
1111One who destroys darkness, or ignorance.
1112One from whom our blessings or the enjoyments of Paradise come.
1113The architect of the gods; or one who lessens the miseries of our birth and
1114One who gives life to the lifeless world.
1115One who pervades the internal and external worlds; or one who is resplen-
1116He who is identified with the Hindu triad, i.e. the creator (Brahmá) the
supporter (Vishnu) and the destroyer (Śiva).
Page 489.
dalí,1132Mrityu (death), Pingala,1133Sarvatápana,1134Kavi,1135
1117Cold or good natured. He is so called because he allays the three sorts of
1118One who is the lord of all.
1119Vide Divákara.
1120One who teaches Brahmá and others the Vedas.
1121One from whom Rudra the destroyer or the third of the Hindu triad springs.
1122One who is knowable through Aditi, i.e., the eternal Brahmavidyá.
1123Great happiness or the sky.
1124The destroyer of cold or stupidity.
1125The Lord of the sky.
1126Vide Timironmathana.
1127One who is known through the Upanishads.
1128He who is the cause of heavy rain.
1129He who is a friend to the good, or who is the cause of water.
1130One who moves in the solar orbit.
1131One who determines the creation of the world; or who is possessed of heat.
1132One who has a mass of rays; or who has Kaustubha and other precious
stones as his ornaments.
1133He who urges all to action; or who is yellow in colour.
1134One who is the destroyer of all.
1135One who is omniscient; or a poet.
The Ramayana
Lord of stars, planets, and other luminous bodies, Viśvabhá-
vana,1140Tejasvinám-Tejasvi,1141Dwádaśátman:1142I salute
thee. I salute thee who art the eastern mountain. I salute thee
who art the western mountain. I salute thee who art the Lord of
all the luminous bodies. I salute thee who art the Lord of days.
I respectfully salute thee who art Jaya,1143Jayabhadra,1144
Haryaśa,1145O Thou who hast a thousand rays, I repeatedly
salute thee. I repeatedly and respectfully salute thee who art
Áditya, I repeatedly salute thee who art Ugra,1146Víra,1147and
Sáranga.1148I salute thee who openest the lotuses (or the lotus
of the heart). I salute thee who art furious. I salute thee who
art the Lord of Brahmá, Śiva and Vishṇu. I salute thee who
art the sun, Ádityavarchas,1149splendid, Sarvabhaksha,1150and
I salute thee who destroyest darkness, cold and enemies:
whose form is boundless, who art the destroyer of the ungrateful;
1136One who is identified with the whole world.
1137One who is of huge form.
1138One who pleases all by giving nourishment; or who is red in colour.
1139One who is the cause of the whole world.
1140One who protects the whole world.
1141The most glorious of all that are glorious.
1142One who is identical with the twelve months.
1143One who gives victory over all the worlds to those who are faithfully
devoted to him; or the porter of Brahmá, named Jaya.
1144One who is identical with the blessing which can be obtained by conquering
all the worlds; or with the porter of Brahmá named Jayabhadra.
1145One who has Hanúmán as his conveyance.
1146One who controls the senses; or is furious with those who are not his
1147He who is free in moving the senses; or urges all beings to action.
1148He who can be known through the Pranava (the mystical Om-kára.)
1149One who is the knowledge of Brahmá.
1150One who devours all things.
1151He who is the destroyer of all pains; and of love, and hate, the causes of
pain; and ignorance which is the cause of love and hate.
Page 492. Rávan's Funeral.
who art Deva;1152who art the Lord of the luminous bodies, and
whoappearestliketheheatedgold. Isalutetheewhoart Hari,1153
Viśvakarman,1154the destroyer of darkness, and who art splen-
did and Lokasákshin.1155Yonder sun destroys the whole of the
material world and also creates it. Yonder sun dries (all earthly
things), destroys them and causes rain with his rays. He wakes
whenoursensesareasleep; andresideswithinallbeings. Yonder
sun is Agnihotra1156and also the fruit obtained by the performer
of Agnihotra. He is identified with the gods, sacrifices, and the
fruit of the sacrifices. He is the Lord of all the duties known to
the world, if any man, O Rághava, in calamities, miseries, forests
and dangers, prays to yonder sun, he is never overwhelmed by
Worship, with close attention Him the God of gods and the
Lord of the world; and recite these verses thrice, whereby thou
wiltbevictoriousinthebattle. Obraveone, thouwiltkillRávaṇa
this very instant.”
Thereupon Agastya having said this went away as he came.
The glorious Ráma having heard this became free from sor-
row. Rághava whose senses were under control, being pleased,
committed the hymn to memory, recited it facing the sun, and
obtained great delight. The brave Ráma having sipped water
thrice and become pure took his bow, and seeing Rávaṇa, was
delighted, and meditated on the sun.
Page 492. Rávan's Funeral.
1152One who is bliss; or the mover.
1153One who destroys ignorance and its effects.
1154The doer of all actions.
1155One who beholds the universe; who is a witness of good and bad actions.
1156Sacrifice of the five sensual fires.
The Ramayana
“In the funeral ceremonies of India the fire was placed on three
sides of the pyre; the Dakshiṇa on the south, the Gárhapatya on
the west, and the Áhavaníya on the east. The funeral rites are not
described in detail here, and it is therefore difficult to elucidate
and explain them. The poem assigns the funeral ceremonies of
Aryan Brahmans to the Rákshases, a race different from them
in origin and religion, in the same way as Homer sometimes
introduces into Troy the rites of the Grecian cult.” GORRESIO.
Mr. Muir translates the description of the funeral from the
Calcutta edition, as follows: “They formed, with Vedic rites, a
funeral pile of faggots of sandal-wood, with padmaka wood, uśi-
ra grass, and sandal, and covered with a quilt of deer's hair. They
then performed an unrivalled obsequial ceremony for the Ráxasa
prince, placing the sacrificial ground to the S.E. and the fire in
the proper situation. They cast the ladle filled with curds and
ghee on the shoulder1157of the deceased; he (?) placed the car
on the feet, and the mortar between the thighs. Having deposited
all the wooden vessels, the [upper] and lower fire-wood, and the
other pestle, in their proper places, they departed. The Ráxasas
in the Śástras, and enjoined by great rishis, cast [into the fire] the
coverlet of the king saturated with ghee. They then, Vibhíshaṇa
included, with afflicted hearts, adorned Rávaṇa with perfumes
and garlands, and with various vestments, and besprinkled him
with fried grain. Vibhíshaṇa having bathed, and having, with
his clothes wet, scattered in proper form tila seeds mixed with
darbha grass, and moistened with water, applied the fire [to the
1157According to Ápastamba (says the commentator) “it should have been
placed on the nose: this must therefore have been done in conformity with
some other Sútras.”
Page 496.
Page 496.
according to the Calcutta edition, text and commentary:
“O Ráma, how dost thou, being the creator of all the world,
and all-powerful as thou art, suffer Sítá to fall in the fire? How
dost thou not know thyself as the best of the gods? Thou art
one of the primeval Vasus,1158and also their lord and creator.
Thou art thyself the lord and first creator of the three worlds.
Thou art the eighth (that is Mahádeva) of the Rudras,1159and
also the fifth1160of the Sádhyas.1161(The poet describes Ráma
as made of the following gods) The Aśvinikumáras (the twin
divine physicians of the gods) are thy ears; the sun and the moon
are thy eyes; and thou hast been seen in the beginning and at the
end of creation. How dost thou neglect the daughter of Videha
(Janaka} like a man whose actions are directed by the dictates
of nature?” Thus addressed by Indra, Brahmá and the other
gods, Ráma the descendant of Raghu, lord of the world and the
best of the virtuous, spoke to the chief of the gods. “As I take
myself to be a man of the name of Ráma and son of Daśaratha,
therefore, sir, please tell me who I am and whence have I come.”
“O thou whose might is never failing,” said Brahmá to Kákutstha
the foremost of those who thoroughly know Brahmá, “Thou art
Náráyaṇa,1162almighty, possessed of fortune, and armed with
the discus. Thou art the boar1163with one tusk; the conqueror
of thy past and future foes. Thou art Brahmá true and eternal or
undecaying. ThouartViśvaksena,1164havingfourarms; Thouart
1158A class of eight gods.
1159A class of eleven gods called Rudras.
1160Named Víryaván.
1161A class of divine devotees named Sádhyas.
1162One who resides in the water.
1163The third incarnation of Vishṇu, that bore the earth on his tusk.
1164One whose armies are everywhere.
The Ramayana
the best of all beings; Thou art one who is never defeated by
any body; Thou art the holder of the sword (named Nandaka).
Thou art Vishṇu (the pervader of all); blue in colour: of great
might; the commander of armies; and lord of villages. Thou
art truth. Thou art embodied intelligence, forgiveness, control
over the senses, creation, and destruction. Thou art Upendra1167
and Madhusúdana.1168Thou art the creator of Indra, the ruler
over all the world, Padmanábha,1169and destroyer of enemies
in the battle. The divine Rishis call thee shelter of refugees, as
well as the giver of shelter. Thou hast a thousand horns,1170a
hundred heads.1171Thou art respected of the respected; and the
lord and first creator of the three worlds. Thou art the forefather
and shelter of Siddhas,1172and Sádhyas.1173Thou art sacrifices;
Vashaṭkára,1174Omkára.1175Thou art beyond those who are
beyond our senses. There is none who knows who thou art and
who knows thy beginning and end. Thou art seen in all material
objects, in Bráhmans, in cows, and also in all the quarters, sky
and streams. Thou hast a thousand feet, a hundred heads, and
a thousand eyes. Thou hast borne the material objects and the
earth with the mountains; and at the bottom of the ocean thou
art seen the great serpent. O Ráma, Thou hast borne the three
1165One who controls the senses.
1166He who resides in the heart, or who is full, or all-pervading.
1167Vámana, or the Dwarf incarnation of Vishṇu.
1168The killer of Madhu, a demon.
1169He from whose navel, the lotus, from which Brahmá was born, springs.
1170He who has a thousand horns. The horns are here the Sákhás of the
1171One who has a hundred heads. The heads are here meant to devote a
hundred commandments of the Vedas.
1172Siddhas are those who have already gained the summit of their desires.
1173Sádhyas are those that are still trying to gain the summit.
1174A mystic syllable uttered in Mantras.
1175A mystic syllable made of the letters which respectively denote Brahmá,
Vishṇu, and Śiva.
Page 503. The Meeting.
worlds, gods, Gandharvas,1176and demons. I am, O Ráma, thy
heart; the goddess of learning is thy tongue; the gods are the hairs
of thy body; the closing of thy eyelids is called the night: and
their opening is called the day. The Vedas are thy Sanskáras.1177
Nothing can exist without thee. The whole world is thy body; the
surface of the earth is thy stability.”
O Śrívatsalakshaṇa, fire is thy anger, and the moon is thy
favour. In the time of thy incarnation named Vámana, thou didst
pervade the three worlds with thy three steps; and Mahendra was
made the king of paradise by thee having confined the fearful
Sítá (thy wife) is Lakshmí; and thou art the God
Vishṇu,1179Krishṇa,1180and Prajápati. To kill Rávaṇ thou hast
assumed the form of a man; therefore, O best of the virtuous,
thou hast completed this task imposed by us (gods). O Ráma,
Rávaṇa has been killed by thee: now being joyful (i.e. having for
some time reigned in the kingdom of Ayodhyá,) go to paradise.
O glorious Ráma, thy power and thy valour are never failing.
The visit to thee and the prayers made to thee are never fruitless.
Thy devotees will never be unsuccessful. Thy devotees who
obtain thee (thy favour) who art first and best of mankind, shall
obtain their desires in this world as well as in the next. They
who recite this prayer, founded on the Vedas (or first uttered by
the sages), and the old and divine account of (Ráma) shall never
suffer defeat.”
Page 503. The Meeting.
1176A class of divine gods.
1177Sanskáras are those sacred writings through which the divine commands
and prohibitions are known.
1178Bali, a demon whom Vámana confined in Pátála.
1179Vishṇu, the second of the Hindu triad.
1180Krishṇa, (black coloured) one of the ten incarnations of Vishṇu.
The Ramayana
The Bharat-Miláp or meeting with Bharat, is the closing scene
of the dramatic representation of Ráma's great victory and tri-
umphant return which takes place annually in October in many
of the cities of Northern India. The Rám-Lalá or Play of Ráma,
as the great drama is called, is performed in the open air and lasts
with one day's break through fifteen successive days. At Benares
there are three nearly simultaneous performances, one provided
one by H. H. the Maharajah of Vizianagram near the Missionary
settlement at Sigra and at other places in the city, and one by
the leading gentry of the city at Chowká Ghát near the College.
The scene especially on the great day when the brothers meet is
most interesting: the procession of elephants with their gorgeous
with priceless jewels sparkling in their turbans, the enthusiasm
of the thousands of spectators who fill the streets and squares,
the balconies and the housetops, the flowers that are rained down
upon the advancing car, the wild music, the shouting and the joy,
make an impression that is not easily forgotten.
Still on his head, well trained in lore
Of duty, Ráma's shoes he bore.
Ráma's shoes are here regarded as the emblems of royalty
or possession. We may compare the Hebrew “Over Edom will
I cast forth my shoe.” A curiously similar passage occurs in
LYSCHANDER'S Chronicon Greenlandiæ Rhythmicon:
“Han sendte til Irland sin skiden skoe,
Og böd den Konge. Som der monne boe,
Han skulde dem hæderlig bære
Pan Juuledag i sin kongelig Pragt,
Og kjende han havde sit Rige og Magt
Af Norges og Quernes Herre.”
Final Notes.
He sent to Ireland his dirty shoes,
And commanded the king who lived there
To wear them with honour
On Christmas Day in his royal state,
And to own that he had his kingdom and power
From the Lord of Norway and the Isles.
Notes & Queries, March 30, 1872.
Final Notes.
I end these notes with an extract which I translate from Signor
Gorresio's Preface to the tenth volume of his Rámáyan, and
I take this opportunity of again thankfully acknowledging my
great obligations to this eminent Śanskritist from whom I have
so frequently borrowed. As Mr. Muir has observed, the Ben-
gal recension which Signor Gorresio has most ably edited is
throughout an admirable commentary on the genuine Rámáyan
of northern India, and I have made constant reference to the
faithful and elegant translation which accompanies the text for
assistance and confirmation in difficulties:
“Towards the southern extremity and in the island of Lanká
(Ceylon) there existed undoubtedly a black and ferocious race,
averse to the Aryans and hostile to their mode of worship: their
ramifications extended through the islands of the Archipelago,
and some traces of them remain in Java to this day.
The Sanskrit-Indians, applying to this race a name expressive
of hatred which occurs in the Vedas as the name of hostile,
savage and detested beings, called it the Rákshas race: it is
against these Rákshases that the expedition of Ráma which the
Rámáyan celebrates is directed. The Sanskrit-Indians certainly
The Ramayana
altered in their traditions the real character of this race: they
attributed to it physical and moral qualities not found in human
nature; they transformed it into a race of giants; they represent-
ed it as monstrous, hideous, truculent, changing forms at will,
blood-thirsty and ravenous, just as the Semites represented the
races that opposed them as impious, horrible and of monstrous
size. But notwithstanding these mythical exaggerations, which
are partly due to the genius of the Aryans so prone to magnify
everything without measure, the Rámáyan in the course of its
epic narration has still preserved and noted here and there some
traits and peculiarities of the race which reveal its true character.
It represents the Rákshases as black of hue, and compares them
with black clouds and masses of black collyrium; it attributes to
them curly woolly hair and thick lips, it depicts them as loaded
with chains, collars and girdles of gold, and the other bright
ornaments which their race has always loved, and in which the
kindred races of the Soudan still delight. It describes them as
worshippers of matter and force. They are hostile to the religion
of the Aryans whose rites and sacrifices they disturb and ruin
… Such is the Rákshas race as represented in the Rámáyan;
and the war of the Aryan Ráma forms the subject of the epic, a
but greatly exaggerated by the ancient myth. In Sanskrit-Indian
tradition are found traces of another struggle of the Aryans with
the Rákshas races, which preceded the war of Ráma. According
to some pauranic legends, Kárttavírya, a descendant of the royal
tribe of the Yádavas, contemporary with Parasurama and a little
anterior to Ráma, attacked Lanká and took Rávaṇ prisoner. This
well shows how ancient and how deeply rooted in the Aryan race
is the thought of this war which the Rámáyan celebrates.
“But,” says an eminent Indianist1181whose learning I highly
appreciate, “the Rámáyan is an allegorical epic, and no precise
1181A. Weber, Akademische Vorlesungen, p. 181.
Final Notes.
and historical value can be assigned to it. Sítá signifies the
furrow made by the plough, and under this symbolical aspect
has already appeared honoured with worship in the hymns of
the Rig-veda; Ráma is the bearer of the plough (this assertion is
entirely gratuitous); these two allegorical personages represented
agriculture introduced to the southern regions of India by the
race of the Kosalas from whom Ráma was descended; the Rák-
shases on whom he makes war are races of demons and giants
who have little or nothing human about them; allegory therefore
predominates in the poem, and the exact reality of an historical
event must not be looked for in it.” Such is Professor Weber's
opinion. If he means to say that mythical fictions are mingled
with real events,
Forsan in alcun vero suo arco percuote,
as Dante says, and I fully concede the point. The interweaving
of the myth with the historical truth belongs to the essence,
so to speak, of the primitive epopeia. If Sítá is born, as the
Rámáyan feigns, from the furrow which King Janak opened
when he ploughed the earth, not a whit more real is the origin
of Helen and Æneas as related in Homer and Virgil, and if the
characters in the Rámáyan exceed human nature, and in a greater
degree perhaps than is the case in analogous epics, this springs
in part from the nature of the subject and still more from the
symbol-loving genius of the orient. Still the characters of the
Rámáyan, although they exceed more or less the limits of human
nature, actnotwithstandinginthecourseofthepoem, speak, feel,
sions. But if by saying that the Rámáyan is an allegorical epic,
it is meant that its fundamental subject is nothing but allegory,
that the war of the Aryan Ráma against the Rákshas race is an
allegory, that the conquest of the southern region and of the
island of Lanká is an allegory, I do not hesitate to answer that
such a presumption cannot be admitted and that the thing is in
The Ramayana
my opinion impossible. Father Paolíno da S. Bartolommeo,1182
had already, together with other strange opinions of his own on
Indian matters, brought forward a similar idea, that is to say
that the exploit of Ráma which is the subject of the Rámáyan
was a symbol and represented the course of the sun: thus he
imagined that Brahmá was the earth, Vishṇu the water, and that
his avatárs were the blessings brought by the fertilizing waters,
etc. But such ideas, born at a time when Indo-sanskrit antiquities
were enveloped in darkness, have been dissipated by the light
of new studies. How could an epic so dear in India to the
memory of the people, so deeply rooted for many centuries in the
minds of all, so propagated and diffused through all the dialects
and languages of those regions, which had become the source
of many dramas which are still represented in India, which is
itself represented every year with such magnificence and to such
crowds of people in the neighbourhood of Ayodhyá, a poem
welcomed at its very birth with such favour, as the legend relates,
that the recitation of it by the first wandering Rhapsodists has
consecrated and made famous all the places celebrated by them,
and where Ráma made a shorter or longer stay, how, I ask,
could such an epic have been purely allegorical? How, upon a
pure invention, upon a simple allegory, could a poem have been
composed of about fifty thousand verses, relating with such force
and power the events, and giving details with such exactness?
On a theme purely allegorical there may easily be composed a
short mythical poem, as for example a poem on Proserpine or
Psyche: but never an epic so full of traditions and historical
memories, so intimately connected with the life of the people, as
the Rámáyan.1183Excessive readiness to find allegory whenever
some traces of symbolism occur, where the myth partly veils
1182Systema brahmanicum, liturgicum, mythologicum, civile, exmonumentis
Indicis, etc.
1183Not only have the races of India translated or epitomized it, but foreign
nations have appropriated it wholly or in part, Persia, Java, and Japan itself.
Final Notes.
the historical reality, may lead and often has led to error. What
poetical work of mythical times could stand this mode of trial?
could there not be made, or rather has there not been made a
work altogether allegorical, out of the Homeric poems? We have
all heard of the ingenious idea of the anonymous writer, who in
order to prove how easily we may pass beyond the truth in our
wish to seek and find allegory everywhere, undertook with keen
subtlety to prove that the great personality of Napoleon I. was
altogether allegorical and represented the sun. Napoleon was
born in an island, his course was from west to east, his twelve
marshals were the twelve signs of the zodiac, etc.
I conclude then, that the fundamental theme of the Rámáyan,
that is to say the war of the Aryan Ráma against the Rákshases,
an Hamitic race settled in the south, ought to be regarded as real
and historical as far as regards its substance, although the mythic
element intermingled with the true sometimes alters its natural
and genuine aspect.
How then did the Indo-Sanskrit epopeia form and complete it-
self? What elements did it interweave in its progress? How did it
embody, howdiditclothethenakedandsimpleprimitivedatum?
We must first of all remember that the Indo-European races pos-
sessed the epic genius in the highest degree, and that they alone
in the different regions they occupied produced epic poetry …
But other causes and particular influences combined to nourish
and develop the epic germ of the Sanskrit-Indians. Already in the
Rig-veda are found hymns in which the Aryan genius preluded,
so to speak, to the future epopeia, in songs that celebrated the
Gods of the Aryan races over enemies secret or open, human or
superhuman, the exploits and the memories of ancient heroes.
Weber remarks, at the solemnity, for example of the Aśvamedha
or sacrifice of the horse, the praises of the king who ordained the
great rite were sung by bards and minstrels in songs composed
The Ramayana
for the purpose, the memories of past times were recalled and
honourable mention was made of the just and pious kings of old.
In the Bráhmaṇas, a sort of prose commentaries annexed to the
Vedas, are found recorded stories and legends which allude to
historical events of the past ages, to ancient memories, and to
mythical events. Such popular legends which the Bráhmaṇas
undoubtedly gathered from tradition admirably suited the epic
tissue with which they were interwoven by successive hands.…
Many and various mythico-historical traditions, suitable for epic
development, were diffused among the Aryan races, those for
example which are related in the four chapters containing the
description of the earth, the Descent of the Ganges, etc. The
epic genius however sometimes created beings of its own and
gave body and life to ideal conceptions. Some of the persons
in the Rámáyan must be, in my opinion, either personifications
of the forces of nature like those which are described with such
vigour in the Sháhnámah, or if not exactly created, exaggerated
beyond human proportions; others, vedic personages much more
ancient than Ráma, were introduced into the epic and woven into
its narrations, to bring together men who lived in different and
distant ages, as has been the case in times nearer to our own, in
the epics, I mean, of the middle ages.
In the introduction I have discussed the antiquity of the
Rámáyan; and by means of those critical and inductive proofs
which are all that an antiquity without precise historical dates
can furnish I have endeavoured to establish with all the certainty
that the subject admitted, that the original composition of the
Rámáyan is to be assigned to about the twelfth century before
the Christian era. Not that I believe that the epic then sprang
to life in the form in which we now possess it; I think, and I
have elsewhere expressed the opinion, that the poem during the
course of its rhapsodical and oral propagation appropriated by
way of episodes, traditions, legends and ancient myths.… But as
far as regards the epic poem properly so called which celebrates
Final Notes.
the expedition of Ráma against the Rákshases I think that I have
sufficiently shown that its origin and first appearance should be
placed about the twelfth century B.C.; nor have I hitherto met
with anything to oppose this chronological result, or to oblige me
deeply versed in these studies, A. Weber, has expressed in some
of his writings a totally different opinion; and the authority of his
name, if not the number and cogency of his arguments, compels
me to say something on the subject. From the fact or rather the
assumption that Megasthenes1184who lived some time in India
has made no mention either of the Mahábhárat or the Rámáyan
Professor Weber argues that neither of these poems could have
existed at that time; as regards the Rámáyan, the unity of its
composition, the chain that binds together its different parts, and
its allegorical character, show it, says Professor Weber, to be
much more recent than the age to which I have assigned it, near
to our own era, and according to him, later than the Mahábhárat.
As for Megasthenes it should be observed, that he did not write
a history of India, much less a literary history or anything at all
resembling one, but a simple description, in great part physical,
of India: whence, from his silence on literary matters to draw
inferences regarding the history of Sanskrit literature would be
the same thing as from the silence of a geologist with respect to
the literature of a country whose valleys, mountains, and internal
structure he is exploring, to conjecture that such and such a poem
or history not mentioned by him did not exist at his time. We
have only to look at the fragments of Megasthenes collected and
published by Schwanbeck to see what was the nature and scope
of his Indica.… But only a few fragments of Megasthenes are
extant; and to pretend that they should be argument and proof
enough to judge the antiquity of a poem is to press the laws
of criticism too far. To Professor Weber's argument as to the
1184In the third century B.C.
The Ramayana
more or less recent age of the Rámáyan from the unity of its
composition, I will make one sole reply, which is that if unity of
composition were really a proof of a more recent age, it would
be necessary to reduce by a thousand years at least the age of
Homer and bring him down to the age of Augustus and Virgil;
for certainly there is much more unity of composition, a greater
accord and harmony of parts in the Iliad and the Odyssey than
in the Rámáyan. But in the fine arts perfection is no proof of
a recent age: while the experience and the continuous labour of
successive ages are necessary to extend and perfect the physical
ornaturalsciences, artwhichisspontaneousinitsnaturecanpro-
duce and has produced in remote times works of such perfection
as later ages have not been able to equal.”
Abhijit, 24.
Abhikála, 176.
Abhíra, 444.
Abravanti, 374.
Aditi, 31, 57, 58, 125, 201, 245, 246.
Ádityas, 246, 403.
Agastya, 5, 9, 40, 132, 151, 239, 240, 242, 244, 262, 265,
280, 375, 480, 491, 500.
Ágneya, 178.
Agni, 28, 74, 109, 132, 240, 243, 276.
Agnivarṇa, 82, 220.
Agniketu, 433 note, 459.
Ahalyá, 60, 61, 62.
Ailadhána, 178.
Air, 2, 28, 203.
Airávat, 14, 110, 178, 246, 256, 267, 335, 399, 402, 415, 429,
437, 472.
Aja, 82, 220, 465.
Ájas, 270, 271.
Akampan, 265, 266, 468, 481.
Aksha, 6, 420, 469, 471.
Akurvati, 178.
Alaka, 203 note.
Alambúshá, 59, 198, 199.
Alarka, 104, 107.
Amarávatí, 13, 203 note, 286.
Ambarísha, 72, 73, 74, 82, 220.
Amúrtarajas, 46.
Anala, 455 note.
The Ramayana
Analá, 245, 246.
Ananta, 373.
Anaraṇya, 81, 219, 470.
Anasúyá, 9, 226, 227, 228.
Andhak, 264.
Andhras, 549.
Anga, 38.
Angad, 342, 348, 350, 352 ff., 363, 364 note, 367, 374, 379
ff, 391, 402, 425 ff., 439, 442, 445, 448, 456, 458, 459, 475, 479
ff, 505.
Angas, 15, 18, 19, 21, 102.
Angiras, 133, 245.
Anjan, 14, 368, 369.
Anjaná, 392.
Anśudhána, 179.
Anśumán, 50, 53, 56, 82, 220.
Anuhláda, 370.
Aparparyat, 178.
Apartála, 175.
Apsarases, 57, 198, 199, 229, 378.
Aptoryám, 24.
Arishta, 424, 425.
Aríshṭanemi, 49, 245, 392.
Arjun, 86.
Arjuna, 518.
Arthasádhak, 14.
Aruṇ, 246,
Arundhatí, 19, 244, 413.
Aryaman, 124.
Áryan, 92.
Asamanj, 50, 53, 82, 138, 220.
Asit, 81, 219.
Aśok, 14, 175.
Aśoka, 6, 10, 101, 205, 278, 296, 297, 300, 318, 321, 357,
403, 444, 452, 456.
Asta, 377, 379 note.
Asurs, 57, 58, 380, 381, 387, 394, 407, 413, 420.
Aśvagríva, 246.
Aśvamedh, 29, 236 note.
Aśvapati, 89, 131, 178, 183.
Aśvatarí, 346.
Aśvin, 371.
Aśvíní, 343.
Aśvins, 28, 36, 60, 62, 163, 246, 339, 343, 403, 490.
Atikáya, 468, 478 ff.
Atirátra, 24.
Atri, 245, 561.
Aurva, 373 note.
Avantí, 374.
Avindhya, 415.
Ayodhyá, 4, 6, 11, 12, 14, 19, 32, 33, 38, 49, 70, 72, 79, 81,
83, 84, 85, 88, 95, 96, passim.
Ayomukh, 374.
Ayomukhi, 310.
Báhíka, 176.
Bahuputra, 245.
Bala, 264.
Bálakhilyas, 63, 235, 270, 271, 374.
Bali, 43, 59, 107, 275, 302, 421.
Báli, 5, 9, 29, 318, 324, 328, 329, 333 ff., 344, 356 ff., 362,
364, 366, 367, 379, 380, 391, 404, 412, 420, 440, 442, 448, 456,
458, 475, 478, 500, 503, 505.
Barbars, 66.
Beauty, 26, 29, 58, 88, 283, 455.
Bhadamadrá, 246.
Bhadra, 52.
Bhaga, 124, 243.
The Ramayana
Bhagírath, 53, 54, 55, 82, 220, 372.
Bhágírathí, 56.
Bharadvája, 4, 7, 9, 10, 158, 159, 193, 196, 197, 199, 200,
201, 501.
Bharat, 4, 9, 10, 32, 81, 83, 84, 88, 89, 94, 97, passim.
Bharatas, 550.
Bháruṇḍa, 178.
Bhásí, 246.
Bhásakarṇa, 420.
Bhava, 78.
Bhímá, 198.
Bhogavatí, 12 note, 267, 375.
Bhrigu, 40, 63, 73, 81, 85, 86, 88, 133, 220.
Brahmá, 6, 7, 10, 19, 25, 26, 33, 38, 39, 42, 46, 48, 54, 56, 59,
61, 63, 65, 67, 68, 74, 75, 77, 81, passim.
Brahmadatta, 46, 47.
Brahmádikas, 133 note.
Bhrahmamálas, 548.
Budha, 287.
Buddhist, 219.
Cancer, 109.
Ceylon, 375 note.
Chaitra, 91.
Chaitraratha, 41, 178, 199, 267, 279, 315, 493.
Chakraván, 376.
Champá, 30.
Chaṇḍa, 448.
Chaṇḍála, 69, 70.
Chandra, 464.
Chatushṭom, 24.
Chitrá, 111, 250, 283.
Chitrakúṭa, 4, 9, 160, 161, 197, 200, 201, 202, 209, 235, 236,
317, 416, 501.
Chitraratha, 132.
Cholas, 549.
Chúli, 47.
Chyavan, 81, 220.
Dadhimukh, 426.
Dadhivakra, 364 note.
Daitya, 125, 152, 211, 246, 289, 306, 371, 418.
Daksha, 36, 78, 228, 245, 257, 396.
Dánav, 255, 270, 306, 307, 311, 371, 372, 382, 432, 443, 477.
Daṇḍak, 9, 99, 103, 117, 124, 126, 130, 166, 181, 199, 211,
238, 271, 374.
Daṇḍaká, 5.
Danú, 245, 246, 313.
Dapple skin, 64, 65.
Dardar, 110, 198.
Dardur, 448.
Darímukha, 371.
Daśárṇa, 374.
Dasáratha, 3, 9, 12, 14, 16, 18 ff., 25, 26, 29, 30, 32, 34, 41,
61, 62, 77, 79, 80 ff., 91, 92, 95, passim.
Dasyus, 444.
Devamíḍha, 82.
Devántak, 479, 480.
Devarát, 77, 82, 86.
Devasakhá, 378.
Devavatí, 515.
Dhanvantari, 57 note.
Dhanyamáliní, 481.
Dharmabhrit, 240.
Dharmapál, 14.
Dharmáraṇya, 46.
Dharmavardhan, 179.
Dhritaráshṭrí, 246.
Dhrishṭaketu, 82.
Dhrishṭi, 14, 202.
The Ramayana
Dhruvasandhi, 81, 219.
Dhúmra, 371, 448.
Dhúmráksha, 433 note, 465, 466.
Dhúmráśva, 60, 481.
Dhundhumár, 81, 171, 219.
Dikshá, 44.
Dilípa, 5 note, 53, 54, 56, 82, 171, 190, 220.
Diti, 58, 59, 245, 246, 323.
Dragon, 101.
Driḍhanetra, 68.
Drishṭi, 202.
Droṇa, 464.
Drumakulya, 444.
Dundubhi, 333, 335, 338.
Durdhar, 420.
Durdharsha, 433 note.
Durjaya, 256 note.
Durmukha, 432, 433 note.
Durvásas, 521.
Dúshaṇ, 5, 250, 254, 255, 256, 258, 259, 261, 264, 265,
267-271, 294, 461, 502.
Dwida, 364 note.
Dwijihva, 474.
Dwivid, 371, 428, 430, 449, 451, 475, 483, 484.
Dwivida, 28.
Dyumatsena, 129.
Ekapádakas, 549.
Ekaśála, 179.
Fame, 26, 283.
Fate, 42, 68, 70, 71, 81, 119, 122, 123, 130, 181, 182, 195,
256, 293, 296, 309, 343, 349, 351, 354, 386, 404, 415, 439, 492.
Fire, 2, 30, 45, 49, 218, 374.
Fortune, 2, 58, 90, 94, 124, 146, 160, 188, 242, 244, 283, 449,
Fire-god, 74, 124, 328.
Gádhi, 40, 48, 63, 64, 67, 68.
Gaja, 364 note, 371, 429, 449, 459.
Gálava, 518.
Gandhamádan, 28, 159, 381, 429, 446, 476.
Gandharva, 199, 256, 258, 259, 278, 285, 351, 396, 425, 437,
441, 454, 466, 468, 491.
Gandharvas, 267, 270, 281, 283, 306, 307, 308, 318, 364,
370, 375, 377, 388, 394, 409, 420, 432, 449, 455, 472.
Gandharví, 246, 265.
Gangá, 7, 9, 37, 38, 45, 48, 49, passim.
Garga, 133.
Garuḍ, 28, 29, 53, 246, 271, 373, 453, 465, 470, 475.
Gautam, 60, 61, 62, 505.
Gautama, 236.
Gaváksha, 364 note, 429, 449, 468, 475, 476.
Gavaya, 364 note, 371, 429, 448, 468.
Gaya, 482.
Gayá, 216.
Gáyatrí, 243.
Ghoralohamukhas, 548.
Ghritáchí, 46, 198, 367.
Girivraja, 46, 176.
Glory, 301.
Godávarí, 245, 247, 248, 249, 282, 303, 310, 374, 500.
Gokarna, 54.
Golabh, 351.
Gomatí, 151, 179, 448, 502, 503.
Gopa, 199.
Guha, 4, 9, 152-156, 162, 192, 193, 194, 208, 501.
Guhyakas, 378.
Háhá, 198.
Haihayas, 81, 219.
The Ramayana
Hanúmán, 5, 9, 10, 28, 324 ff., 328, 332, 337, 340, 350, 355,
359, 360, 363, 364 note, 368, 371, 374, 378 ff., 392 ff., 411 ff.,
424 ff., 449, 456.
Hara, 448.
Harí, 246.
Hárítas, 66.
Haryaśva, 82.
Hástinapura, 176.
Hastiprishṭhak, 179.
Havishyand, 68.
Hayagriva, 346, 376.
Hemá, 198, 382.
Hemachandra, 60.
Heti, 515.
Himálaya, 3, 14, 45, 48, 49, 50, 53, 54, 61, 67, 76, 81, 88.
Himaváu, 380.
Hiraṇyakaśipu, 391 note, 407.
Hiraṇyanábha, 500.
Hládini, 55, 178.
Honour, 283.
Hotri, 24.
Hraśvaromá, 82.
Huhú, 198.
Ikshumatí, 80, 176.
Ikshváku, 2, 11, 13, 18, 24, 25, 35, 59, 60, 69, 70, 71, 73, 81,
82, 83, 90, 94, 96, 103, 219, 390.
Ilval, 241.
Indra, 2, 5, 13, 14, 25, 28, 29, 36, 39, 40, 43 ff., 50, 56,
Indrajánu, 371 note.
Indrajít, 420, 432, 436, 437, 441, 455, 459 ff., 482, 485.
Indraśatru, 433 note.
Indraśira, 178.
Irávatí, 246.
Jábáli, 505.
Jahnu, 55.
Jáhnaví, 49, 55, 154.
Jamadagni, 85, 86, 87, 119.
Jámbaván, 371, 374, 388, 391, 393, 402, 425, 428, 429, 439,
446, 448, 456, 464, 483, 503.
Jambudvip, 51, 373.
Jambumálí, 418, 419, 420, 459, 460.
Jambuprastha, 179.
Jámbuvatu, 364 note.
Janak, 4, 8, 9, 21, 45, 60, 61, 62, 77-85, 88, 090, passim.
Janamejaya, 171.
Janasthán, 225, 251, 254, 255, 264, 265, 271, 281, 282, 294,
295, 298, 308, 404, 439, 454, 463, 474, 493, 500.
Játarúpa, 373.
Jaṭáyu, 5.
Jaṭáyus, 245, 247, 280, 288, 290, 308, 385 ff., 500, 502.
Java, 231.
Jáváli, 20, 80, 174, 217, 218, 219, 222.
Jayá, 36.
Jayanta, 14, 175.
Jumna, 109, 501, 502.
Jupiter, 144.
Justice, 3, 35, 42, 149, 243, 346, 454.
Jyotishṭom, 24.
Kabandha, 5, 9, 310-316, 446, 500.
Kadrú, 246.
Kadrumá, 246.
Kaikasí, 516.
Kaikeyí, 3, 4, 9, 27, 32, 88, 96-103, passim.
Kailása, 38, 85, 92, 96, 110, 111, 267, 286, 357, 364, 368,
369, 373, 378, 421, 431.
Kakustha, 35, 37, 82, 109, 110, 123, 137, 142, 147, 149, 151,
153, 192, 208, 211, 220, 311.
The Ramayana
Kalá, 378.
Kálak, 246.
Kálaká, 245, 246.
Kálakámuka, 256 note.
Kálamahí, 372.
Kalinda, 178.
Kálindí, 81, 160, 220.
Kalinga, 179.
Kalingas, 549,
Kalmáshapáda, 82, 220.
Káma 37, 38, 42, 283, 286, 296.
Kámboja, 13, 66.
Kámbojas, 66.
Kámpili, 47
Kaṇdu, 118, 380, 440.
Kandarpa, 37, 74, 75, 76, 250, 269.
Kaṇva, 440.
Kanyákubja, 47.
Kapil, 51, 52, 53.
Kapivati, 179.
Kardam, 245.
Karṇaprávaraṇas, 548.
Kártikeya, 243.
Kárttavírya, 518.
Káśi, 21, 102.
Kásíkosalas, 548.
Kaśyap, 15, 16, 20, 30, 57-59, 80, 81, 86, 87, 91, 92, 118,
219, 215, passim.
Kátyáyan, 505.
Kátyáyana, 80, 174.
Kauśalyá, 3, 23, 27, 30, 31, 79, 84, 88, 93, 94, 97, 98, 100,
Kauśámbí, 46.
Kauśikas, 549.
Kauśikí, 48, 372.
Káverí, 375.
Kaustubha, 58.
Kávya, 40.
Kekaya, 21, 84, 88, 90, 137, 139, 174, 175.
Kerala, 190.
Keralas, 549.
Kesarí, 371.
Keśini, 49, 50.
Khara, 9, 225, 250 ff., 281, 288, 290, 294, 295, 433, 446, 451,
461, 477, 493.
Kinnars, 270, 306, 308, 318, 321, 373, 425.
Kimpurushas, 28 note.
Kirátas, 66, 549.
Kírtirát, 82.
Kirtirátha, 82.
Kishkindhá, 5, 333, 334, 336, 338, 339, 351, 357, 362, 369,
385, 449, 464, 500.
Kośal, 11, 102, 273, 307, 359, 418.
Kośala, 151, 173.
Krathan, 448.
Kratu, 245.
Krauncha, 310, 378, 476.
Kraunchi, 246.
Kriśáśva, 36, 41, 43.
Krishṇa, 497.
Krishṇagiri, 448.
Krishṇveni, 374.
Krita, 57, 395.
Krodhavaśá, 245, 246.
Kshatriyas, 246, 346.
Kukshi, 81, 219.
Kulingá, 176.
Kumbha, 484.
The Ramayana
Kumbhakarṇa, 10, 250, 399, 411, 435 ff., 441, 470 ff.
Kúmuda, 364 note, 448.
Kunjar, 375, 392.
Kuru(s), North, 198, 203, 315.
Kurujángal, 176.
Kuśa, 10, 46, 48, 63, 526.
Kuśadhwaj, 80, 82, 88.
Kuśámba, 46.
Kuśanábha, 46, 47, 48, 63.
Kuśáśva, 60.
Kuśik, 33, 35, 36, 38, 44, 56, 62, 63, 68, 70 ff., 83.
Kuṭíká, 179.
Kuṭikoshṭiká, 179.
Kuvera, 23, 88, 109, 110, 111, 112, 198, 199, 204, 232, 267,
378, 422, 431, 432, 483.
Lakshmaṇ, 4, 8, 11, 32, 36, 38, 40, 41, 44, 45, 56, 61, 79, 80,
82-84, 88, 91, 94, 97, 98, passim.
Lakshmí, 88, 116, 146, 227, 400, 453, 462, 497.
Lamba, 397.
Lanká, 5, 10, 265, 267, 284, 286, 293, 295-297, 367, 387,
397, 411, 423 ff., 439, 456 ff.
Lankaṭankaṭá, 515.
Lava, 10, 526.
Lohitya, 179.
Lokapálas, 485.
Lomapád, 15, 16, 18, 19, 21, 30.
Mádhaví, 520.
Madhu, 26, 51, 57, 87, 95.
Madhúka, 245.
Madhushyand, 68, 74.
Madrakas, 550.
Magadh, 46, 102.
Mágadnas, 548.
Maghá, 83.
Mahábír, 82.
Mahábala, 433 note.
Mahábhárat, 520, 524, 551, 554.
Mahádeva, 61, 515.
Mahákapála, 256 note, 260.
Mahámáli, 256 note.
Mahándhrak, 82.
Mahápadma, 14, 52.
Mahápáráśva, 433, 436, 455, 478, 480, 487.
Mahárath, 68.
Maháromá, 82.
Maháruṇ, 368.
Maháśaila, 368.
Mahendra, 28, 59, 86, 87, 88, 140, 167, 213, 243, 244, 307,
336, 344, 364, 368, 370, 375, 490, 531, 554.
Maheśwar, 369, 498.
Mahí, 372.
Máhishmatí, 518.
Mahishikas, 549.
Mahodar, 433 note, 450, 455, 474, 478 ff.
Mahodaya, 46, 70, 71, 488.
Maináka, 10, 394, 500 note.
Mainda, 28, 364 note, 371, 428, 430, 439, 449, 451, 458, 482,
Makaráksha, 485 note.
Malaja, 39.
Málavas, 548.
Malaya, 198, 324, 328, 375, 379, 430.
Málí, 515, 516.
Máliní, 175, 539.
Malyaván, 454, 455.
Mályavat, 515, 516.
Mánas, 38.
Mandakarṇi, 240.
The Ramayana
Mandákiní, 200, 201, 203, 209, 234, 235, 304, 322, 416 note.
Mandalí, 556.
Mandar, 57, 163, 285, 362, 368, 372, 399, 402, 421, 485, 491,
493, 525.
Mandarí, 444.
Mándhátá, 81, 219, 347, 518.
Mándavi, 84.
Máṇḍavya, 226 note.
Mandehas, 373.
Mandodarí, 402, 492, 500, 516.
Mandra, 14.
Maṇibhadra, 441.
Manthará, 40, 96, 97, 99, 187.
Manu, 11, 12, 13, 81, 103, 151, 179, 219, 245, 246, 347, 490,
505, 537, 555.
Marícha, 58.
Márícha, 5, 9, 35, 39, 40, 44, 266, 271-280, 298.
Maríchi, 81, 91, 219, 245.
Maríchipas, 270, 271.
Márkaṇḍeya, 80, 174.
Mars, 93, 144, 339, 404, 445, 467, 489.
Maru, 82, 220.
Maruts, 25, 54, 59, 403, 517, 547, 555.
Máshas, 270, 271.
Mátali, 109, 142, 489, 491, 493.
Matanga, 14, 246, 315, 316, 317, 318, 319, 336, 337, 380.
Mátangí, 246.
Mátariśva, 389.
Matsya, 102, 523, 537, 549.
Maya, 293, 382, 432, 488.
Máyá, 293, 521.
Máyáví, 333, 334, 379.
Meghamáli, 256 note.
Meghanáda, 10.
Mekhal, 374.
Mená, 49, 394 note.
Menaká, 74.
Mercury, 144, 339, 467.
Meru, 4, 49, 92, 109, 110, 142, 182, 232, 236, 254, 291, 315,
368, 370, 377, 380, 418, 493.
Meruśavarṇi, 382.
Mina, 32.
Miśrakeśí, 199.
Mithi, 82.
Míthilá, 9 note, 21, 45, 60, 61, 78, 81, 83, 84, 85.
Mitraghna, 459.
Mlechchhas, 66, 537, 550.
Modesty, 26.
Moon, 30, 42, 58, 109 ff., 124, 218, 227, 243, 276, 367, 413,
414, 488.
Mriga, 14.
Mrigamandá, 246.
Mrigí, 246.
Mudgalya, 174.
Nábhág, 82, 220.
Nágadantá, 198.
Nágas, 12, 55, 66, 68, 145, 270, 273, 395, 409, 413, 420, 427,
Nahush, 82, 95, 171, 190, 220, 307.
Nairrit, 430.
Nala, 10, 340, 364 note, 428, 444, 445, 448, 449, 468, 475,
Nalá, 246.
Naliní, 55, 203, 204, 267, 436.
Namuchi, 39, 261, 264, 275, 336.
Nandá, 415.
Nandan, 26, 175, 200, 267, 279, 315, 316, 426.
Nandi, 249, 421.
The Ramayana
Nandigráma, 4, 6, 9, 224, 502, 503.
Nandíśvara, 471.
Nandivardhan, 82.
Nárad, 1, 2, 8, 9, 124, 199, 543.
Narak, 479.
Narántak, 479.
Náráyaṇ, 25, 26, 95, 393, 474, 497, 516, 517, 522, 535, 559.
Narmadá, 374, 448, 518.
Nikumbha, 432, 433 note, 437, 459, 484.
Níla, 28, 340, 352, 360, 364 note, 371, 374, 428, 429, 430,
446, 448, 449, 456, 458, 459, 469, 472, 475, 482.
Nimi, 77, 82.
Niśakar, 389, 390.
Nishádas, 4, 152, 192, 196, 271, 501, 537.
Ocean, 10, 95, 144, 285, 286, 336, 346, 387.
Oshṭhakarṇakas, 548.
Pahlavas, 66.
Páka, 252, 297, 498.
Pampá, 5, 9, 235, 293, 314-321, 327.
Panas, 371, 428, 448, 464.
Panasa, 455 note.
Panchajan, 376.
Panchála, 176, 539.
Panchápsaras, 240.
Panchavaṭa, 9.
Panchavaṭí, 244, 245, 247.
Páṇḍyas, 375, 549.
Paráśara, 517.
Paraśuráma, 119 note, 523, 531.
Paravíráksha, 256 note.
Páriyátra, 376, 448.
Parjanya, 112, 174, 261, 448.
Párvati, 249 note, 515, 542.
Paulastya, 472.
Paulomí, 29, 370.
Pávaní, 55.
Phálguní, 83.
Pináka, 67.
Pitris, 550.
Prabháva, 363.
Prachetas, 1, 245.
Praghas, 420, 459, 460.
Prágvaṭ, 179.
Prahasta, 399, 418, 419, 421, 422, 432 ff., 441, 451, 452, 455,
456, 471, 481.
Praheti, 515.
Prahláda, 391.
Prajangha, 459, 460.
Prajápati, 133 note, 554, 560.
Pralamba, 175.
Pramátha, 256 note.
Pramathí, 260, 448.
Pramati, 455 note.
Prasenajit, 81, 219.
Praśravaṇ, 304, 357, 380, 383, 415, 426.
Prasthalas, 550.
Praśuśśruka, 82, 220.
Pratindhak, 82.
Pravargya, 22.
Prayág, 158, 159, 196.
Prithu, 81, 219.
Prithuśyáma, 256 note.
Proshṭhapadá, 32.
Pulah, 245.
Pulastya, 35, 245, 254, 268, 288, 408, 515.
Pulindas, 550.
Puloma, 370.
Punarvasu, 93.
The Ramayana
Puṇḍaríká, 199.
Puṇḍras, 548, 549.
Punjikasthalá, 436, 552.
Puranda, 522.
Purandara, 384, 522.
Purúravas, 286, 544, 545.
Purusha, 256 note, 559.
Purushádak, 82, 220.
Purushottam, 498, 517.
Púshá, 124.
Pushpak, 10, 80, 286, 499, 519.
Pushya, 32, 90, 92, 94, 96, 98, 109, 126.
Rabhasa, 433 note.
Rághava, 5 note.
Raghu, 5, 9, 22, 32 ff., 50, 56, 61, passim.
Raghunandana, 522.
Ráhu, 93, 223, 261, 272, 303, 351, 480.
Rain, Lord of, 92, 222.
Rájagriha, 174, 175.
Ráma, passim.
Rámáyana, 8 note, 10, 11, 541, 542.
Rambhá, 75, 232, 448.
Ramaṇá, 199.
Raśmiketu, 433 note, 459.
Rávaṇ, 5, 9, 10, 25, 26, 32, 35, passim.
Reṇuká, 63, 119.
Richíka, 48, 73, 86.
Right, 42, 68.
Riksharajas, 386, 442.
Rikshaván, 448.
Rishabh, 373, 375, 429, 446, 476, 483.
Rishṭikas, 549.
Rishyamúka, 9, 314, 315, 316, 318 ff., 332, 335, 339, 340,
353, 380, 500.
Rishyaśring, 15-24, 29, 30.
Rohiṇí, 4, 112, 223, 227, 246, 251, 282, 287, 367, 404, 413,
Rohitas, 376, 558.
Rudhiráśana, 256 note.
Rudra, 49, 57, 67, 77, 78, 162, 249, 257, 264, 283, 296, 378,
413, 483.
Rudras, 246, 558.
Rukmiṇí, 517.
Rumá, 346, 349, 350, 363, 366, 367, 371, 385, 403.
Ruman, 371.
Sachí, 29, 202, 234, 238, 276, 286, 297, 370, 408, 415, 494,
519, 522.
Sádhyas, 490, 555, 558, 559.
Sagar, 11, 50 ff., 82, 119, 137, 171, 441.
Sahadeva, 60.
Sahya, 429, 430.
Śaivya, 104, 107, 171, 533.
Śakas, 66, 550.
Śakra, 75, 234, 307, 313, 336, 344, 448, 464.
Śálmalí, 176, 539.
Śályakartan, 178.
Śáman, 186, 326, 359.
Śambar, 479.
Śambara, 99, 100.
Sampáti, 5, 9, 246, 364 note, 385, 387 ff., 412, 455 note, 459,
460, 464.
Samprakshálas, 235.
Sanatkumár, 15, 16.
Sandhyá, 515.
Sanháras, 36.
Sanhráda, 474.
Śaniśchar, 283.
Śankan, 82.
The Ramayana
Śankar, 57, 335.
Sánkáśyá, 80, 81, 82, 83.
Śankha, 555.
Śankhan, 220, 432.
Sanrochan, 448.
Śanśray, 245.
Śántá, 16, 19, 29, 30, 31.
Śarabh, 364 note, 439, 476.
Śarabhanga, 9, 233, 234, 235, 236, 265, 502.
Śaradaṇḍá, 176, 539.
Saramá, 452, 453.
Sáraṇ, 446, 447, 455.
Sarandib, 375 note.
Sáranga, 556.
Sarasvatí, 178, 372, 516, 522.
Śárdúla, 441, 449, 450.
Śárdúlí, 246.
Sarjú, 11, 20, 22, 36, 37, 38, 50, passim.
Sárvabhauma, 429.
Sarvartírtha, 179.
Śaśivindhus, 81, 219.
Śatabali, 371, 377, 379, 380.
Śatadrú, 178, 539.
Śatahradá, 231.
Śatánanda, 62, 63, 77, 79, 80, 81, 84.
Śatrughna, 32, 83, 84, 88, 89, 97, passim.
Śatrunjay, 504.
Satyaván, 129.
Satyavatí, 48.
Sávitrí, 129, 227.
Śavarí, 315, 316, 317.
Saumanas, 373.
Sávarṇí, 377.
Seven Rishis, 23.
Śesha, 245.
Siddhárth, 14, 137, 138, 175.
Siddhas, 28 note, 540, 559.
Śíghraga, 82, 220.
Śilá, 178.
Śilávahá, 178.
Sindhu, 13, 21, 55, 102, 372, 376, 443.
Sinhiká, 10, 396.
Śiśir(a), 372, 555.
Sítá, 4 ff., 55, 78, 79, 83, 84, 88, 93, passim.
Śiva, 4, 36, 42, 54, 55, 57, 67, 78, 82, 85, 86, 109, 110, 205,
523, 524, 543, 554.
Skanda, 554.
Soma, 52, 58, 198, 267, 378, 554.
Somadatta, 60.
Somadá, 47.
Somagiri, 376, 378.
Śoṇa, 45, 48, 372.
Śringavera, 4, 192, 196, 223, 501, 502.
Srinjay, 60.
Srutakírti, 84.
Stháṇu, 25, 37, 245.
Stháṇumatí, 179.
Sthúláksha, 256 note, 260.
Sthúlaśiras, 313.
Subáhu, 364 note.
Suchakshu, 55.
Suchandra, 60.
Śuchi, 238.
Sudámá, 178.
Sudáman, 81, 176.
Sudarśan, 82, 83, 220, 373, 378, 448.
Sudarśandwíp, 374.
Sudhanvá, 82.
The Ramayana
Sudhriti, 82.
Śúdras, 6, 13, 246.
Sugríva, 5, 6, 9, 28, 29, 314, 316, 318, 324 ff., 337, 339, 344,
346 ff., 371, 375 ff., 412, 414, 422, 424, 430, 439 ff., 446, 450,
519, 545.
Śuka, 442, 446, 447, 455 ff.
Sukeśa, 515, 516.
Suketu, 39, 82.
Sukí, 246.
Śukra, 124, 210, 279, 384, 429.
Sumáli, 515, 516.
Sumágadhí, 46.
Sumantra, 15, 16, 19, 21, 80, 92, passim.
Sumati, 49, 50, 59, 60.
Sumitrá, 27, 30, 32, 88, 94, passim.
Sun, 93, 109, 110, 124, 243.
Sunábha, 425.
Śunahśepha, 72, 73, 74
Sunda, 35, 39.
Sunetra, 364 note.
Suparṇa, 53, 125, 231, 343, 349, 388.
Supárśva, 388.
Supátala, 364 note.
Suptaghna, 433 note.
Surá, 58.
Surabhí, 183, 246.
Surapati, 522.
Suras, 58.
Surasá, 246, 395.
Suráshṭra, 21, 102, 376.
Súrasenas, 550.
Śúrpaṇakhá, 5, 9, 249 ff., 267 ff., 288, 502.
Súrya, 555.
Súryáksha, 364 note.
Súryaśatru, 433 note.
Súryaván, 375.
Susandhi, 81, 219.
Susheṇ, 28, 351, 364 note, 376, 379, 380.
Sutanu, 199.
Sutíkshṇa, 9, 234, 236, 237, 240, 241.
Suváhu, 35, 44, 45, 146.
Suvarat, 220.
Suvela, 450, 456, 457.
Suvíra, 21, 102.
Suyajǹa, 20, 132.
Svayambhu, 394.
Svayamprabhá, 382.
Śvetáraṇya, 264.
Swarga, 54, 101, 202, 493.
Swarṇaromá, 82.
Śweta, 448.
Śyáma, 160.
Syandiká, 151.
Śyenagámí, 256 note, 260.
Śyení, 246.
Táḍaká, 38, 39, 40, 41.
Táḍakeya, 266.
Taittiríya, 132.
Takshak, 432.
Takshaka, 267.
Tálajanghas, 81, 219.
Tamasá, 7, 147, 148, 149.
Támrá, 245, 246.
Támraparṇí, 375.
Tapan, 459, 555.
Tára, 364 note, 379 ff.
Tárá, 9, 336, 349 ff., 355, 359, 362, 363, 366, 367, 369, 371,
385, 403, 449, 546.
The Ramayana
Tárak, 430.
Tárkshya, 214.
Ten-necked, 250.
Thirty-three Gods, 51.
Thousand-eyed, 41, 59, 60, 74, 75, 76, 86, 90, 112, 252, 297,
Three-eyed God, 86.
Thunderer, 234.
Titan, 58, 67, 72, 79, 109, 114, 124.
Toraṇ, 179.
Town-Destroyer, 59, 60.
Trident, 68.
Trident-wielding, 54, 57.
Trijaṭ, 133.
Trijaṭá, 410, 463.
Trikúṭa, 456, 457, 500, 515.
Triṇavindu, 515.
Trípathagá, 56.
Tripur, 306.
Tripura, 85, 86.
Triśanku, 68-72, 81, 144, 219, 429.
Triśirá, 9.
Triśirás, 256 note, 260, 261, 264, 267, 271, 478, 479, 480,
Tumburu, 198, 199, 232.
Uchchaihśravas, 58, 522.
Udayagiri, 379 note.
Udávasu, 82.
Ujjiháná, 179.
Ukthya, 24.
Umá, 49, 54, 205, 249 note, 471, 542, 543.
Upasad, 22.
Upasunda, 35.
Upendra, 74, 559.
Urmilá, 47, 83, 84, 88, 228.
Urvaśí, 286, 544, 545.
Uśanas, 382.
Utkal, 374.
Uttániká, 179, 539.
Váhli, 13.
Váhlíka, 376.
Vahni, 555.
Vaidyut, 375.
Vaijayanta, 99, 179, 522.
Vaikhánasas, 270, 271, 374.
Vainateya, 388.
Vaiśravaṇ, 265, 285, 378, 414, 515.
Vaiśyas, 246.
Vaitaraṇí, 293.
Vajra, 376.
Vajradanshṭra, 432, 433 note, 466, 467.
Válmíki, 1, 7-11, 161, 519, 542.
Vámadeva, 14, 79, 80, 91, 174, 222, 505.
Vámana, 14, 523.
Váṇa, 81, 219.
Vanáyu, 13.
Vangas, 102.
Varadas, 550.
Varuṇ, 1 note, 28, 42, 67, 88, 109, 124, 228, 243, 272, 293,
338, 377, 383, 448, 471, 518.
Varáśya, 256 note.
Varútha, 179.
Vásav, 92.
Vásava, 236, 522.
Vaśishṭha, 14, 15, 19-22, 25, 32, passim.
Vásudeva, 51, 52.
Vásuki, 57, 267, 375, 432, 518, 522.
Vasus, 14, 46, 246, 283, 377, 403, 522, 554.
The Ramayana
Vasvaukasárá, 203.
Vátápi, 241, 280.
Váyu, 59, 243, 369, 427, 428, 555.
Vedas, 1 note, 3, 12, 22, 70, 89, 109, 125, 147, 184, 229, 559.
Vedaśrutí, 151.
Vedavatí, 470, 517.
Vegadarśí, 429, 446, 483.
Veṇá, 448, 537.
Vibháṇḍak, 15, 16, 17, 18, 25.
Vibhíshaṇ, 6, 10, 250, 273, 415, 422, 423, 433 ff., 449 ff.,
472, 483, 487 ff., 516.
Vibudh, 82.
Vidarbha, 46, 49.
Vidarbhas, 549.
Videha, 79 ff., 129, 130, 142, 166, 195, 227.
Videhan, 9, 79, 95, 104, 119, 125, passim.
Videhas, 548.
Vidyádharí, 203 note.
Vidyujjihva, 450.
Vidyunmáli, 364 note.
Vidyutkeśa, 515.
Vihangama, 256 note.
Vijay, 14, 36, 175, 505.
Vikaṭá, 409.
Vikrit, 245.
Vikukshi, 81, 219.
Vinata, 179, 379, 380, 388, 448.
Vinatá, 53, 125, 246.
Vindhya, 14, 51, 242, 364, 370, 374, 380.
Vindu, 55.
Vipáśá, 176, 539.
Vírabáhu, 364 note.
Virádha, 5, 9, 229, 232, 404, 446, 502.
Viráj, 124.
Viramatsya, 178.
Virochan, 40, 43.
Virtue, 223, 272.
Virúpáksha, 52, 420, 433, 459, 460, 487.
Viśákhás, 144, 430.
Viśálá, 56, 57, 59, 60, 62.
Vishṇu, 1 note, 2, 3, 25, 32, 40, passim.
Viśravas, 35, 309, 408, 515, 516.
Viśváchi, 198.
Viśvajit, 24.
Viśvakarmá, 28, 42, 198, 376, 387, 444, 445, 448, 499, 500,
515, 556.
Viśvámitra, 9, 32 ff., 39, 41, 44, 45, passim.
Viśvarúpa, 353.
Viśvas, 377.
Viśvávasu, 198.
Viśvedevas, 162.
Vitardan, 474.
Vivasvat, 81, 171, 219, 245, 386, 532.
Vraṇa, 444.
Vrihadratha, 82.
Vrihaspati, 28, 31, 95, 124, 210, 307, 464, 517.
Vritra, 125, 264, 288, 387, 487, 491, 536.
Vulture-king, 9.
War-god, 124, 476.
Wind, 30, 218.
Wind-god, 10, 36, 42, 68, 325, 326, 379, 392 ff., 417 ff., 449,
470, 478, 481, 488, 502, 503.
Yavadwípa, 372.
Yajnakopa, 433 note, 459.
Yajush, 326.
Yajnaśatru, 256 note.
Yaksha, 236 note, 306, 318, 363, 375, 394, 420, 422, 425,
431, 454, 458, 468.
The Ramayana
Yáma, 68, 71, 112, 117, 124, 140, 166, 171, 241, 248, 262,
275, 287, 313, 343 ff., 432, 437, 449, 472, 475, 496, 518, 554.
Yamuná, 158, 159, 160, 178, 214, 223, 372.
Yámun, 372.
Yavanas, 66, 550.
Yayáti, 82, 95, 107, 119, 163, 186, 307, 344.
Yudhájit, 84, 88, 180, 190.
Yúpáksha, 420, 472.
Yuvanáśva, 81, 219.
March 18, 2008
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